Sabaj, Carvalho, and Reis in Carvalho, Reis and Sabaj 2017
First mentioned by Arce et al. (2013:572) as a probable undescribed species.
CountryAmazon River: freshwater
Only a Holotype has been assigned: Holotype: ANSP 182322, 44.1 mm SL.
Type locality: Rıo Amazonas, main channel in vicinity of Iquitos, Maynas,Loreto, Peru (03o43'21"S, 07o12'14"W).
Endemic – Amazonas main channel (Dagosta and de Pinna 2019)
Deep and predominantly dark channels in the Amazon basin. Found also at the same location was Cetopsis oliveirai Lundberg and Rapp Py-Daniel 1994 (see also Vari et al. 2005:179-180), another anophthalmic fish (Carvalho et al. 2017:25).
Stewart et al. (2002) comment that reductions in eye size and pigmentation are commonly seen in fishes which inhabit the deep channels of whitewater rivers.
Carvalho et al. (2018) used five gene fragments (mitochondrial 16S and COI, nuclear RAG1, MYH6 and SH3PX3, see below) from 114 individuals representing 31 species in 12 genera, to examine the phylogeny of the Family Aspredinidae. They found that all species of Xyliphius studied formed a monophyletic group. Within this X. magdalenae Eigenmann 1912 and X. melanopterus Orcés 1962 are sister species with X. sofiae sister to them and with X. lepturus Orcés 1962 as sister to these three.
Entirely anophthalmic and depigmented (see above and below). Most species in the genus are found in Whitewater Rivers and these loose all light at a depth of about 4m (Crampton 2008:304 Fig. 11.4, 2011:). Of the seven valid species in the genus X. magdalenae has small eyes, X. barbatus, X. kryptos, X. lepturus and X. melanopterus have rudimentry eyes, and the eyes of X. anchoretes are extremely rudimentary (Carvalho et al. 2017 Table 2). Clearly most species have evolved a degree of troglomorphy as a result of living in the lightless depth of the whitewater rivers.
[Note that X. lombarderoi Risso and Risso 1964 and X. labrosus Risso and Risso 1964 are both synonyms of X. barbatus Alonso de Arámburu and Arámburu 1962].
As above only.
Genbank accession numbers
- Friel, J.P. (1994)
- Stewart, D.J., Ibarra, M. and Barriga-Salazar, R. (2002)
- Vari, R.P., Ferraris Jr., C.J. and de Pinna, M.C.C. (2005)
- Crampton, W.G.R. (2008)
- Crampton, W.G.R. (2011)
- Arce, H.M., Reis, R.E., Geneva, A.J. and Sabaj Perez, M.H. (2013)
- Carvalho, T.P., Reis, R.E. and Sabaj, M.H. (2017)
- Carvalho, T.P., Arce H., M., Reis, R.E. and Sabaj, M.H. (2018)
- van der Sleen, P. and Albert, J.S. editors (2018)
- Friel, J.P. and Carvalho, T. (2018)
- Dagosta, F.C.P. and de Pinna, M.C.C (2019)
|Friel, J.P.||Thesis||1994||A phylogenetic study of the Neotropical banjo catfishes (Teleostei; Siluriformes: Aspredinidae)|
|Stewart, D.J., Ibarra, M. and Barriga-Salazar, R.||Journal Article||2002||Comparison of deep-river and adjacent sandy-beach fish assemblages in the Napo River Basin, eastern Ecuador|
|Vari, R.P., Ferraris Jr., C.J. and de Pinna, M.C.C.||Journal Article||2005||The Neotropical whale catfishes (Siluriformes: Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae), a revisionary study|
|Crampton, W.G.R.||Book Section||2008||Diversity and adaptation in deep-channel Neotropical electric fishes|
|Crampton, W.G.R.||Book Section||2011||An ecological perspective on diversity and distributions|
|Arce, H.M., Reis, R.E., Geneva, A.J. and Sabaj Perez, M.H.||Journal Article||2013||Molecular phylogeny of thorny catfishes (Siluriformes: Doradidae).|
|Carvalho, T.P., Reis, R.E. and Sabaj, M.H.||Journal Article||2017||Description of a new blind and rare species of Xyliphius (Siluriformes: Aspredinidae) from the Amaxon basin using high-resolution computed tomography|
|Carvalho, T.P., Arce H., M., Reis, R.E. and Sabaj, M.H.||Journal Article||2018||Molecular phylogeny of Banjo catfishes (Ostaryophisi: Siluriformes: Aspredinidae): A continental radiation in South American freshwaters|
|van der Sleen, P. and Albert, J.S. editors||Book||2018||Field guide to the fishes of the Amazon, Orinoco and Guianas|
|Friel, J.P. and Carvalho, T.||Book Section||2018||Family Aspredinidae - Banjo catfishes|
|Dagosta, F.C.P. and de Pinna, M.C.C||Journal Article||2019||The fishes of the Amazon: Distribution and biogeographical patterns, with a comprehensive list of species|