Search the Bibliography
The bibliography contains 5765 entries covering all aspects of the biology of subterranean fishes and allied subjects of relevance.
This web site is effectively the second edition of my book on the subterranean fishes of the world (Proudlove 2006). It follows very much the same structure and content and its main aim is to provide an always-up-to-date checklist of the cave and groundwater fishes of the world and detailed species accounts for all species. A fully searchable bibliography of 5700+ entries (1436 - date) is also provided.
There are also two secondary aims: One is to provide checklists and species accounts for the interstitial fishes and for troglomorphic fishes from non-subterranean habitats. The second is to provide a checklist and species accounts for the other obligate-subterranean vertebrates, which are all Amphibia. This second aim is work in progress and species accounts will appear in due course.
Each species account has a Metadata link which takes you to a page describing the methods used, the notation and various other essential guides to using the site effectively.
There are currently 306 species of cave and groundwater fishes, 53 species of interstitial fishes, 55 species with troglomorphic features from non-subterranean habitats (414 fishes) and 25 troglobitic Amphibia (total 439 obligate subterranean vertebrates).
Comments, corrections, additions etc. to me at g.proudlove[at]manchester.ac.uk
email@example.com email distribution list created. Mail me to be added.
V1.0 edited Tuesday 6th February 2024
Four new species of Triplophsa added from caves in China (Luo et al. 2023). However, only one of these is troglomorphic so only it is included here
The bibliography now exceeds 5700 entries and there are 200 new ones for 2023. This compares to 230 for 2022.
Important preprint on Habitat correlates of cave-dwelling: A radiation-scale analysis of skin traits and comparative transcriptomics of the Sinocyclocheilus cavefish (Luo et al. 2023)
Very important paper on the phylogeography and evolution of cave and surface Astyanax (Garduño-Sánchez et al. 2023)
New paper from Horst Wilkens
Important paper on the whole Chinese subterranean fish fauna Wu et al. 2023
The first troglobitic fish from the Dinaric karst (?), see Cupic et al. 2023
There are 12 relevant papers, in several Journals, united under the overall title of Adaptations-to-subterranean-environments. Four are about fishes and the other eight are also of value
The species Troglonectes canlinensis take the total of known subterranean fishes to 300
New book on Groundwater Ecology and Evolution (Malard, Griebler and Retaux 2023). One of the most important books on subterranean biology ever published. Essential reading for all involved in any aspect of this subject. All chapters are entered into the bibliography and they can be retrived with a key-word search of Groundwater Ecology and Evolution
New location for Astyanax (Miranda-Gamboa et al. 2023)
A New paper from Richard Borowsky has important implications for the evolution of troglomorphy: "It has been argued that regression of eyes and pigmentation was driven by drift, but the results of this study suggest that strong selection actively eliminates surface alleles from the cave populations".
We are 105 days into 2023 and so far at least 77 publications have appeared, including 24 chapters in the book mentioned above. Just put 2023 in the Year box and search
Thw worlds largest subterranean fish, by far, named as Neolissochilus pnar Dahanukar, Sundar, Rangad, Proudlove and Raghavan 2023
The Bibliography. which is a central part of this web site, was begun in 1979. Today it has just reached 5500 entries
Using information from Zhao, Zhang and Proudlove (2021) and Xu et al. (2023) I have removed four species of styglophylic Sinocyclocheilus from the list. There are currently 34 valid nominal species of stygobites in the genus plus S. "xiaotunensis" which is probably a stygobite but is not yet vaildly named. There are 39 stygophile species in the genus making 74 species in total
Eight new Astyanax chapters in a recent book. Use keyword search Emerging model organisms, with date of 2023, to get citations for all eight
Prietella lundbergi may not be in the genus Prietella and probably needs a new genus of its own (Hendrickson et al. 2022). It is curenly left in Prietella until more information is available
Important paper on phylogeographic relationships and morphological evolution between cave and surface Astyanax mexicanus populations (Garduno et al. 2022)
Important thesis on evolution of the eye in Astyanax mexicanus: contribution of maternal and early developmental regulations (Leclercq 2022) - but not freely available until 26-09-2024
Numerous species of Nemacheilidae moved from various genera into Troglonectes to conform to Catalog of Fishes. More work yet required on the species accounts
Recent chapter on the subterranean fishes of Brazil (Bichuette 2022)
Retaux (2022) a mini-review of eye-loss in cave fishes
Reier et al (2022) is probably the most important recent paper on the fishes in the Dinaric karst.
Some major additions to the account for Troglocobitis starostini
Probably the most important paper yet published on the conservation of subterranean habitats.
I overlooked an important Symposium of the evolution of eye loss (Porter and Sumner-Rooney (2018): Evolution in the Dark: Unifying our Understanding of Eye Loss) from 2018. Papers from it were published in Integrative and Comparative Biology 58 (2018). All citations are now in the bibliography and you can find all ten of them by using a key-word search of Eye Loss Symposium.
With the addition of all papers that were presented at the 2022 AIM Meeting the number of references in the bibliography relating to cave Astyanax has reached 1000. The total for all subterranean and other troglomorphic fishes is 5080, so this represents ~20% of all known sources.
- Checklist of cave and groundwater fishes
- Fishes removed from the list of cave and groundwater fishes
- Checklist of interstitial fishes
- Checklist of troglomorphic fishes from non-subterranean habitats
- Coexisting species of cave and groundwater fishes
- Non-stygobitic fishes in caves and other subterranean habitats
- A history of investigations and significant landmarks in the study of subterranean fishes
- A Consideration of Fishless Karsts
- Acknowledgements and credits