Checklist of cave and groundwater fishes

This checklist covers all of the known troglobiotic (or stygobiotic) fishes. These live their whole lives in caves, which have relatively large conduit sizes, or in groundwater aquifers where the conduit size is often smaller. Both are habitats of total and continuous darkness and this leads, directly or indirectly (it depends on who you ask), to the suite of adaptations known as troglomorphy. The most obvious troglomorphisms are the reduction of eyes and of melanin pigment, both of which can regress to entire absence in some species. In addition to these regressive feature are a variable number of progress troglomorphisms, for example the elaboration of the mechanosensory lateral-line system. There are many sources which discuss troglomorphy in great detail but the folowing recent works are the best to begin with: Wilkens and Stecker (2017), Keene, Yoshizawa and McGaugh (2016), White and Culver (2012), Culver and Pipan (2009), Culver and Pipan (2014) and Wilkens, Culver and Humphreys (2000). A brief modern overview of the biology of subterranean fishes is provided by Borowsky (2018).

Total: 250 species

Order: Cypriniformes (117 species)

Suborder: Cobitoidei (64 species)

Family: Balitoridae (1 species)

Cryptotora thamicola MG [VU B2ab(iii) D2:3.1:2011] Thailand
Homaloptera thamicola

Family: Cobitidae (5 species)

Protocobitis polylepis TLO MuG [NE] China
Protocobitis anteroventris TLO MuG [NE] China
Bibarba parvoculus TLO [NE] China
Bibarba micoculum

Family: Nemacheilidae (58 species)

Eidinemacheilus smithi MuG TLO [VU D2:2.3:1996] Iran
Noemacheilus smithiNemacheilus smithiParacobitis smithi
Eidinemacheilus proudlovei MuG TLO [NE] Iraq
Oreonectes anophthalmus [VU D2:2.3:1996] China
Troglonectes translucens MuG TLO [NE] China
Oreonectes translucens
Troglonectes macrolepis MuG [NE] China
Oreonectes macrolepis
Troglonectes elongatus MuG [NE] China
Oreonectes elongatus
Troglonectes acridorsalis MuG TLO [NE]
Oreonectes acridorsalis
Troglonectes furcocaudalis MuG TLO [DD:3.1:2009]
Oreonectes furcocaudalis
Troglonectes microphthalmus MuG TLO [NE]
Oreonectes microphthalmus
Troglonectes barbatus MuG TLO [NE] China
Oreonectes barbatus
Triplophysa gejiuensis [VU D2:2.3:1996] China
Noemacheilus gejiuensis
Triplophysa xiangxiensis [VU D2:2.3:1996] China
Noemacheilus xiangxiensis
Triplophysa longibarbata TLO [NE] China
Paracobitis longibarbatusParacobitis posterodarsalusParacobitis maolanensisHomatula posterodarsalusHomatula maolanensisNemacheilus liboensisOreonectes liboensis
Triplophysa rosa TLO [NE] China
Linemacheilus wulongHeminoemacheilus wulongensis
Triplophysa lihuensis TLO [NE] China
Oreonectes jiarongensis [NE] China
Triplophysa jiarongensis
Triplophysa lingyunensis [NE] China
Schistura lingyunensis
Triplophysa microphthalma TLO [NE] China
Schistura dabryi microphthalmusClaea dabryi microphthalmus
Schistura sijuensis TLO [EN B1ab(iii):3.1:2010] India
Noemacheilus sijuensisNemachilus sp.Nemachilus beavaniNoemacheilus multimexicanus
Schistura oedipus [VU D2:3.1:2011] Thailand
Nemacheilus oedipus
Schistura jarutanini TLO [VU D2:3.1:2011] Thailand
Noemacheilus sp.
Schistura spiesi TLO [VU D2:3.1:2012] Thailand
Schistura aff reidi
Schistura mobbsi TLO [NE] Vietnam
Speonectes tiomanensis MG TLO [VU D2:2.3:1996] Malaysia
Sundoreonectes tiomanensisNoemacheilus sp. nov.
Indoreonectes evezardi TLO TMP [NE] India
Noemacheilus evezardiNemachilus evezardiNemacheilus evazardiOreonectus evezardiNemacheilus aureus
Troglocobitis starostini MG TLO [VU D2:2.3:2000] Turkmenistan
Noemacheilus starostiniNemacheilus starostini
Draconectes narinosus MG TLO [NE] Vietnam
Schistura larketensis TLO [NE] India
Triplophysa erythraea TLO [NE] China

Suborder: Cyprinoidei (53 species)

Family: Cyprinidae (53 species)

Barbopsis devecchii MG [DD:3.1:2010] Somalia
Eilichthys microphthalmusBarbopsis stefaniniiZaccarinia stefaninii
Garra andruzzii [VU D2:3.1:2010] Somalia
Phreatichthys andruzzii
Garra typhlops [VU D2:2.3:1996] Iran
Iranocypris typhlops
Garra lorestanensis [NE] Iran
Iranocypris typhlopsGarra typhlops
Garra tashanensis TLO [NE] Iran
Sinocyclocheilus anatirostris [VU D2:2.3:1996] China
Sinocyclocheilus guangxiensisSinocyclocheilus albeoguttatus
Sinocyclocheilus bicornutus TLO [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus biangularis
Sinocyclocheilus furcodorsalis TLO [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus tianeensis
Sinocyclocheilus cyphotergous TLO [NE] China
Gibbibarbus cyphotergous
Sinocyclocheilus microphthalmus TLO [VU D2:2.3:1996] China
Anchicyclocheilus halfibindusSinocyclocheilus halfibindus
Sinocyclocheilus longibarbatus [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus yaolanensis
Sinocyclocheilus altishoulderus TLO [NE] China
Anchicyclocheilus altishoulderus
Sinocyclocheilus hugeibarbus [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus liboensisSinocyclocheilus dongtangensis
Pseudosinocyclocheilus jinxiensis MG TLO [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus jinxiensis
Poropuntius speleops [VU D2:3.1:2011] Thailand
Barbus speleops
Speolabeo musaei MuG TLO [VU D2:3.1:2011] Laos
Bangana musaei
Speolabeo hokhanhi MuG TLO [NE] Vietnam

Order: Characiformes (3 species)

Suborder: Characoidei (3 species)

Family: Characidae (3 species)

Astyanax jordani [NE] México
Anoptichthys jordaniAnoptichthys antrobiusAnoptichthys hubbsiAstyanax fasciatusAstyanax mexicanus
Astyanax aeneus TMP [NE] México

Order: Gymnotiformes (1 species)

Suborder: Sternopygoidei (1 species)

Family: Sternopygidae (1 species)

Order: Siluriformes (69 species)

Suborder: Loricarioidei (35 species)

Family: Astroblepidae (2 species)

Family: Callichthyidae (1 species)

Aspidoras mephisto TLO [NE] Brazil
Aspidoras albater

Family: Loricariidae (5 species)

Ancistrus galani TLO [NE] Venezuela

Family: Trichomycteridae (27 species)

Trichomycterus spelaeus TLO [NE] Venezuela
Ituglanis passensis TLO [NE] [VU D2:3.1:2011] Brazil
Trichomycterus sp.
Silvinichthys bortayro [NE] Argentina

Suborder: Siluroidei (34 species)

Family: Amblycipitidae (1 species)

Xiurenbagrus dorsalis TLO [NE] China
Xiurenbagrus dorsalis

Family: Clariidae (5 species)

Uegitglanis zammaranoi MG [VU D2:3.1:2010] Somalia
Uegitglanis zammaranoi baidoaensis
Horaglanis abdulkalami MuG TLO [NE] India

Family: Heptapteridae (15 species)

Pimelodella kronei [DD:2.3:1996] [EN B2ab(ii,iii):3.1:2011] Brazil
Typhlobagrus kroneiPimelodella lateristriga var. kroneiCaecorhamdella brasiliensis
Rhamdia urichi TLO [NE] Trinidad
Caecorhamdia urichiCaecorhamdella urichiRhamdia quelen urichi
Rhamdia typhla TLO [NE] Belize
Rhamdia laticauda typhla
Rhamdia macuspanensis TLO [NE] México
Rhamdia laluchensis TLO [NE] México
Rhamdia guasarensis TLO [NE] Venezuela
Rhamdia enfurnada [NE] Brazil

Family: Ictaluridae (4 species)

Family: Kryptoglanidae (2 species)

Kryptoglanis shajii MuG [NE] India

Family: Phreatobiidae (4 species)

Phreatobius cisternarum MuG [LC:3.1:2011] Brazil
Heptapterus cisternarum
Phreatobius dracunculus MuG TLO [NE] Brazil

Family: Siluridae (3 species)

Pterocryptis cucphuongensis TLO [DD:3.1:2012] Vietnam
Silurus cucphuongensis
Pterocryptis buccata TLO [DD:3.1:2012] Thailand
Silurichthys sp.Silurus sp.Pterocryptes sp.

Order: Percopsiformes (16 species)

Suborder: Percopsiformes (16 species)

Family: Amblyopsidae (16 species)

Amblyopsis hoosieri MuG [NE] USA
Typhlichthys wyandotteAmblyopsis spelaea “N”Amblyopsis spelaea
Troglichthys rosae MG [NT:3.1:2014] USA
Typhlichthys rosaeAmblyopsis rosaeAmblyopsis rosae whitaeAmblyopsis rosae arkansasus
Typhlichthys subterraneus MuG [NT:3.1:2014] [NT:3.1:2013 (Niemiller et al. 2013)] USA
Typhlichthys osborniTyphlichthys wyandotteTyphlichthys eigenmanni
Typhlichthys eigenmanni MuG [NT:3.1:2013 (Niemiller et al. 2013)] USA
Typhlichthys subterraneus
Typhlichthys undescribed species lineage A MuG [NE] [VU B1ab(iii):3.1:2013 (Niemiller et al. 2013)] USA
Typhlichthys subterraneus
Typhlichthys undescribed species lineage B MuG [NE] [VU B1ab(iii):3.1:2013 (Niemiller et al. 2013)] USA
Typhlichthys subterraneus
Typhlichthys undescribed species lineage C MuG [NE] [EN B1ab(iii):3.1:2013 (Niemiller et al. 2013)] USA
Typhlichthys subterraneus
Typhlichthys undescribed species lineage D MuG [NE] [EN B1ab(iii):3.1:2013 (Niemiller et al. 2013)] USA
Typhlichthys subterraneus
Typhlichthys undescribed species lineage E MuG [NE] [EN B1ab(iii):3.1:2013 (Niemiller et al. 2013)] USA
Typhlichthys subterraneus
Typhlichthys undescribed species lineage F MuG [NE] [VU B1ab(iii):3.1:2013 (Niemiller et al. 2013)] USA
Typhlichthys subterraneus
Typhlichthys undescribed species lineage G MuG [NE] [EN B1ab(iii):3.1:2013 (Niemiller et al. 2013)] USA
Typhlichthys subterraneus
Typhlichthys undescribed species lineage M MuG [NE] [CR B1ab(iii):3.1:2013 (Niemiller et al. 2013)] USA
Typhlichthys subterraneus
Typhlichthys undescribed species lineage Key Cave TLO MuG [NE] [CR B1ab(iii):3.1:2016:Hart 2016] USA
Typhlichthys subterraneus
Typhlichthys undescribed species MuG [NE] USA
Typhlichthys subterraneus

Order: Ophidiiformes (15 species)

Suborder: Bythitoidei (15 species)

Family: Bythitidae (12 species)

Lucifuga subterranea MuG [VU D2:2.3:1996] Cuba
Lucifuga subterraneusLucifuga teresinarum
Lucifuga dentata MuG [NE] Cuba
Lucifuga dentatusStygicola dentatus
Lucifuga holguinensis MuG [NE] Cuba
Lucifuga dentatus holguinensis

Family: Dinematichthyidae (3 species)

Typhlias pearsei MG [VU D2:2.3:1996] México
Typhlisina pearseiOgilbia pearsei
Ogilbia galapagosensis [VU D2:3.1:2010] Galapagos
Caecogilbia galapagosensis
Diancistrus typhlops TLO [NE] Indonesia

Order: Gobiiformes (18 species)

Suborder: Gobioidei (18 species)

Family: Butidae (3 species)

Oxyeleotris caeca TLO [NE] PNG
Oxyeleotris colasi TLO [NE] PNG
Bostrychus microphthalmus TLO [NE] Indonesia

Family: Eleotridae (2 species)

Caecieleotris morrisi MG TLO [NE] Mexico

Family: Gobiidae (8 species)

Luciogobius fluvialis TLO [NE] Japan
Caecogobius cryptophthalmus TLO MuG [NE] Philippines
Caecogobius personatus TLO MuG [NE] Philippines

Family: Milyeringidae (5 species)

Milyeringa veritas MuG [DD:2.3:1996] Australia
Milyeringa brooksi
Milyeringa justitia MuG [NE] Australia

Order: Synbranchiformes (7 species)

Suborder: Synbranchoidei (7 species)

Family: Synbranchidae (7 species)

Ophisternon infernale [EN A1ac+2c,B1+2c:2.3:1996] México
Pluto infernalisFurmastix infernalisSynbranchus infernalis
Ophisternon candidum [DD:2.3:1996] Australia
Anomatophasma candidum
Monopterus eapeni TLO [DD:3.1:2011] India
Monopterus indicusMonopterus “indicus”
Monopterus rongsaw TLO [NE] India
Monopterus luticolus [NE] Cameroon

Order: Cyprinodontiformes (1 species)

Suborder: Cyprinodontoidei (1 species)

Family: Poeciliidae (1 species)

Poecilia mexicana TMP [NE] México
Poecilia sphenopsMollienisia sphenops

Order: Perciformes (2 species)

Suborder: Cottoidei (2 species)

Family: Cottidae (2 species)

Cottus specus [NE] USA
Cottus carolinae species group

Order: Anabantiformes (1 species)

Suborder: Channoidei (1 species)

Family: Channidae (1 species)

Aenigmachanna gollum TLO [NE] India