Checklist of cave and groundwater fishes

This checklist covers all of the known troglobiotic (or stygobiotic) fishes. These live their whole lives in caves, which have relatively large conduit sizes, or in groundwater aquifers where the conduit size is often smaller. Both are habitats of total and continuous darkness and this leads, directly or indirectly (it depends on who you ask), to the suite of adaptations known as troglomorphy. The most obvious troglomorphisms are the reduction of eyes and of melanin pigment, both of which can regress to entire absence in some species. In addition to these regressive feature are a variable number of progress troglomorphisms, for example the elaboration of the mechanosensory lateral-line system. There are many sources which discuss troglomorphy in great detail but the following recent works are the best to begin with: Wilkens and Stecker (2017), Keene, Yoshizawa and McGaugh (2016), White and Culver (2012), Culver and Pipan (2009), Culver and Pipan (2014) and Wilkens, Culver and Humphreys (2000), Assmann et al. (2010). A brief modern overview of the biology of subterranean fishes is provided by Borowsky (2018).

Total: 305 species

Order: Cypriniformes (144 species)

Suborder: Cobitoidei (78 species)

Family: Balitoridae (1 species)

Cryptotora thamicola (Kottelat 1988) Kottelat 1998 MG [VU B2ab(iii) D2:3.1:2011] Thailand
Homaloptera thamicola

Family: Cobitidae (8 species)

Bibarba parvoculus Wu, Yang and Xiu 2015 TLO [NE] China
Bibarba micoculum
Bibarba wenliuensis Yang, Chen and Li 2020 TLO [NE] China
Pangio bhujia Anoop, Britz, Arjun, Dahanukar and Raghavan 2019 [NE] India
Pangio pathala Sundar, Arjun, Sidharthan, Dahanukar and Raghavan 2022 TLO [NE] India
Paralepidocephalus translucens Liu, Yang and Chen 2016 TLO [NE] China
Protocobitis typhlops Yang and Chen 1993 TLO MuG [VU D2:2.3:1996] China
Protocobitis polylepis Zhu, Lu, Yang and Zhang 2008 TLO MuG [NE] China
Protocobitis anteroventris Lan in Lan, Gan, Wu and Yang 2013 TLO MuG [NE] China

Family: Nemacheilidae (69 species)

Barbatula barbatula (cave form) [Behrmann-Godel, Nolte, Kreiselmaier, Berka and Freyhof 2017] TLO [NE] Germany
Draconectes narinosus Kottelat 2012 MG TLO [NE] Vietnam
Eidinemacheilus smithi (Greenwood 1976) Segherloo, Ghaedrahmati and Freyhof 2016 MuG TLO [VU D2:2.3:1996] Iran
Noemacheilus smithiNemacheilus smithiParacobitis smithi
Eidinemacheilus proudlovei Freyhof, Abdullah, Ararat, Ibrahim and Geiger 2016 MuG [NE] Iraq
Heminoemacheilus hyalinus Lan, Yang and Chen 1996 TLO [NE] China
Heminoemacheilus parvus Zhu and Xhu 2015 [NE] China
Heminoemacheilus parva
Homatula dotui Nguyen, Wu, Cao and Zhang 2021 TLO [NE] Vietnam
Indoreonectes evezardi (Day 1872) Kottelat 1990 TLO TMP [NE] India
Noemacheilus evezardiNemachilus evezardiNemacheilus evazardiOreonectus evezardiNemacheilus aureus
Kayahschistura lokalayensis Kottelat and Grego 2020 MG TLO [NE] Myanmar
Oreonectes anophthalmus Zheng 1981 [VU D2:2.3:1996] China
Oreonectes luochengenis Yang, Wu, Wei and Yang 2011 TLO [NE] China
Paracobitis starostini (Parin 1983) MG TLO [VU D2:3.1:2020] Turkmenistan
Noemacheilus starostiniNemacheilus starostiniTroglocobitis starostini
Schistura sijuensis (Menon 1987) Kottelat 1990 TLO [EN B1ab(iii):3.1:2010] India
Noemacheilus sijuensisNemachilus sp.Nemachilus beavaniNoemacheilus multimexicanus
Schistura oedipus (Kottelat, 1988) Kottelat 1990 [VU D2:3.1:2011] Thailand
Nemacheilus oedipus
Schistura jarutanini Kottelat 1990 TLO [VU D2:3.1:2011] Thailand
Noemacheilus sp.
Schistura kaysonei Vidthayanon and Jaruthanin 2002 TLO [VU D2:3.1:2011] Laos
Schistura spiesi Vidthayanon and Kottelat 2003 TLO [VU D2:3.1:2012] Thailand
Schistura aff reidi
Schistura deansmarti Vidthayanon and Kottelat 2003 TLO [VU D2:3.1:2011] Thailand
Schistura spekuli Kottelat 2004 TLO [VU D2:3.1:2011] Vietnam
Schistura papulifera Kottelat, Harries and Proudlove 2007 [CR B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii):3.1:2010] India
Schistura mobbsi Kottelat and Leisher 2012 TLO [NE] Vietnam
Schistura larketensis Choudhury, Mukhim, Basumatary, Warbah and Sarma 2017 TLO [NE] India
Speonectes tiomanensis (Kottelat 1990) Kottelat 2012 MG TLO [VU D2:2.3:1996] Malaysia
Sundoreonectes tiomanensisNoemacheilus sp. nov.
Triplophysa anshuiensis Wu, Wei, Lan and Du 2018 TLO [NE] China
Triplophysa yunnanensis Yang in Wu 1990 [NE] China
Triplophysa gejiuensis (Chu and Chen 1979) Chen, Yang and Xu 1992 [VU D2:2.3:1996] China
Noemacheilus gejiuensis
Triplophysa xiangxiensis (Yang, Yuan and Liao 1986) Chen, Yang and Xu 1992 [VU D2:2.3:1996] China
Noemacheilus xiangxiensis
Triplophysa shilinensis Chen and Yang 1992 [NE] China
Triplophysa nandanensis Lan, Yang and Chen 1995 TLO [NE] China
Triplophysa aluensis Li and Zhu 2000 [NE] China
Triplophysa tianeensis Chen, Cui and Yang 2004 [NE] China
Triplophysa xiangshuingensis Li 2004 [NE] China
Triplophysa rosa Chen and Yang 2005 [NE] China
Linemacheilus wulongHeminoemacheilus wulongensis
Triplophysa qiubeiensis Li, Yang, Chen, Tao, Qi and Han 2008 [NE] China
Triplophysa macrocephala Yang, Wu and Yang 2012 TLO [NE] China
Triplophysa langpingensis Yang in Lan, Gan, Wu and Yang 2013 TLO [NE] China
Triplophysa fengshanensis Lan in Lan, Gan, Wu and Yang 2013 TLO [NE] China
Triplophysa tianxingensis Yang, Li and Chen 2016 TLO [NE] China
Triplophysa tianlinensis Li, Li, Lan and Du 2016 TLO [NE] China
Triplophysa microphthalma (Liao and Wang in Liao, Wang and Luo 1997) Kottelat 2012 TLO [NE] China
Schistura dabryi microphthalmusClaea dabryi microphthalmus
Triplophysa xichouensis Liu, Pan, Yang and Chen 2017 TLO [NE] China
Triplophysa luochengensis Li, Lan, Chen and Du 2017 [NE] China
Triplophysa baotianensis Li, Li, Liu and Li in Li, Liu, Li and Li 2018 TLO [NE] China
Triplophysa erythraea Liu and Huang in Huang, Zhang, Huang, Wu, Gong, Zhang, Peng and Liu 2019 TLO [NE] China
Triplophysa wulongensis Chen, Sheraliev, Shu and Peng 2021 TLO [NE] China
Triplophysa xuanweiensis Lu, Li, Mao and Zhao 2022 TLO [NE] China
Triplophysa qini Deng, Wang and Zhang 2022 [NE] China
Triplophysa wudangensis Liu, Zheng and Gong 2022 [NE] China
Triplophysa qingzhenensis Liu, Zeng and Gong 2022 [NE] China
Troglonectes huanjiangensis Yang, Wu and Lan 2011 TLO [NE] China
Troglonectes duanensis Lan in Lan, Gan, Wu and Yang 2013 [NE] China
Troglonectes donglanensis Wu in Lan, Gan, Wu and Yang 2013 [NE] China
Troglonectes daqikongensis (Deng, Wen, Xiao and Zhou 2016) Huang, Yang, Wu and Zhao 2019 MuG TLO [NE] China
Oreonectes daqikongensis
Troglonectes translucens (Zhang, Zhao and Zhang 2006) Zhang and Zhou 2016 MuG TLO [NE] China
Oreonectes translucens
Troglonectes macrolepis (Huang, Du, Chen and Yang 2009) Zhang and Zhou 2016 MuG [NE] China
Oreonectes macrolepis
Troglonectes elongatus (Tang, Zhao and Zhang 2012) Zhang and Zhou 2016 MuG [NE] China
Oreonectes elongatus
Troglonectes acridorsalis (Lan in Lan, Gan, Wu and Yang 2013) Zhang and Zhou 2016 MuG TLO [NE]
Oreonectes acridorsalis
Troglonectes barbatus (Gan in Lan, Gan, Wu and Yang 2013) Zhang and Zhou 2016 MuG TLO [NE] China
Oreonectes barbatus
Troglonectes longibarbatus (Chen, Yang, Sket and Aljancic 1998) TLO [NE] China
Paracobitis longibarbatusParacobitis posterodarsalusHomatula posterodarsalusHomatula maolanensisNemacheilus liboensisOreonectes liboensis
Troglonectes lihuensis (Wu, Yang and Lan 2012) Li 2018 TLO [NE] China
Triplophsa lihuensis
Troglonectes jiarongensis (Lin, Li and Song 2012) Huang, Yang, Wu and Zhao 2019 MuG [NE] China
Triplophysa jiarongensis
Troglonectes lingyunensis (Liao, Wang and Luo 1997) Kottelat 2012 [NE] China
Schistura lingyunensis
Troglonectes dongganensis Yang in Lan, Gan, Wu and Yang 2013 TLO [NE] China
Troglonectes maolanensis (Li, Ran and Chen 2006) China
Paracobitis maolanensis
Troglonectes furcocaudalis (Zhu and Cao 1987) Zhang and Zhao 2016 MuG TLO [DD:3.1:2009] China
Oreonectes furcocaudalis
Troglonectes microphthalmus (Du, Chen and Yang 2008) Zhang and Zhao 2016 MuG TLO [NE] China
Oreonectes microphthalmus
Troglonectes shuilongensis (Deng, Xiao, Hou and Zhou 2016) MuG TLO [NE] China
Oreonectes shuilongensis
Troglonectes canlinensis Li, Ge, Bao, Du, Luo and Zou 2023 TLO [NE] China

Suborder: Cyprinoidei (66 species)

Family: Cyprinidae (65 species)

Barbodes microps (Günther 1868) Kottelat, Whitten, Kartikasari and Wirjoatmodjo 1993 [VU D1+2:3.1:2020] Indonesia
Barbus micropsPuntius microps
Barbodes pyrpholeos Tan and Husana 2021 TLO [NE] Philippines
Barbopsis devecchii Di Caporiacco 1926 MG [DD:3.1:2010] Somalia
Eilichthys microphthalmusBarbopsis stefaniniiZaccarinia stefaninii
Caecobarbus geertsii Boulenger 1921 MG [VU B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv):3.1:2010] Democratic Republic of the Congo
Garra andruzzii (Vinciguerra, 1924) Colli, Paglianti, Berti, Gandolfi and Tagliavini 2009 [VU D2:3.1:2010] Somalia
Phreatichthys andruzzii
Garra typhlops (Bruun and Kaiser 1944) Farashi, Kaboli, Rezaei, Naghavi, Rahimian and Coad 2014 [VU D2:2.3:1996] Iran
Iranocypris typhlops
Garra longipinnis Banister and Clarke 1977 TMP [DD:3.1:2015] Oman
Garra barreimiae
Garra dunsirei Banister 1987 TLO [EN D:3.1:2015] Oman
Garra lorestanensis Mousavi-Sabet and Eagderi 2016 [NE] Iran
Iranocypris typhlopsGarra typhlops
Garra widdowsoni (Trewavas 1955) Hamidan, Geiger and Freyhof 2014 [CR B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv:3.1:2014] Iraq
Typhlogarra widdowsoni
Garra tashanensis Mousavi-Savet, Vatandoust, Fatemi and Eagderi 2016 TLO [NE] Iran
Garra undescribed species [Kruckenhauser, Haring, Seemann and Sattmann 2011] TLO [NE] Oman
Garra rufa (cave form) (Heckel 1843) Iran
Henicorhynchus thaitui Nguyen, Ho, Hoang and Zhang 2020 [NE] Vietnam
Longanalus macrochirous Li, Ran and Chen 2006 TLO MG [NE] China
Neolissochilus subterraneus Vidthayanon and Kottelat 2003 TLO [VU D2:3.1:2011] Thailand
Neolissochilus pnar Dahanukar, Sundar, Rangad, Proudlove and Raghavan 2023 TLO [NE] India
Poropuntius speleops (Roberts 1991) Kottelat and Brehier 1999 [VU D2:3.1:2011] Thailand
Barbus speleops
Pseudosinocyclocheilus jinxiensis (Zheng, Xiu and Yang 2013) Zhang and Zhao 2016 MG TLO [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus jinxiensis
Sinocyclocheilus anatirostris Lin and Luo 1986 [VU D2:2.3:1996] China
Sinocyclocheilus guangxiensisSinocyclocheilus albeoguttatus
Sinocyclocheilus bicornutus Wang and Liao 1997 TLO [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus biangularis
Sinocyclocheilus rhinocerous Li and Tao 1994 [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus furcodorsalis Chen, Yang and Lan 1997 TLO [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus tianeensis
Sinocyclocheilus angularis Zheng and Wang 1990 TLO [VU D2:2.3:1996] China
Sinocyclocheilus tianlinensis Zhou, Zhang and He 2004 TLO [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus tileihornes Mao, Lu and Li 2003 [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus xunlensis Lan, Zhao and Zhang, 2004 [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus aquihornes Li and Yang 2007 [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus broadihornes Li and Mao 2007 TLO [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus flexuosdorsalis Zhu and Zhu 2012 TLO [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus anshuiensis Gan, Wu, Wei and Yang 2013 TLO [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus multipunctatus (Pellegrin 1931) [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus cyphotergous (Dai 1988) Kottelat and Brehier 1999 TLO [VU D2 2.3] [Kottelat 1996] China
Gibbibarbus cyphotergous
Sinocyclocheilus microphthalmus Li 1989 TLO [VU D2:2.3:1996] China
Anchicyclocheilus halfibindusSinocyclocheilus halfibindus
Sinocyclocheilus longibarbatus Wang and Chen 1989 [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus yaolanensis
Sinocyclocheilus altishoulderus (Li and Lan, 1992) Wang and Chen 1998 TLO [NE] China
Anchicyclocheilus altishoulderus
Sinocyclocheilus lingyunensis Li, Xiao, Zan, Luo and Li 2000 TLO [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus luopingensis Li and Tao 2002 [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus jiuxuensis Li and Lan 2003 TLO [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus hugeibarbus Li and Ran in Li, Ran and Cheng 2003 [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus liboensisSinocyclocheilus dongtangensis
Sinocyclocheilus brevibarbatus Zhao, Lan and Zhang 2009 TLO [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus luolouensis Lan in Lan, Gan, Wu and Yang 2013 [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus brevis Lan and Chen in Chen and Lan 1992 [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus donglanensis Zhao, Watanabe and Zhang 2006 [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus yishanensis Li and Lan 1992 [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus longifinus Li 1996 [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus maculatus Li 2000 [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus guanyangensis Chen, Peng and Zhang 2016 [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus convexiforeheadus Li, Yang and Li in Yang, Li and Li 2017 TLO [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus zhenfengensis Liu, Deng, Ma, Xiao and Zhou 2018 TLO [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus sanxiaensis Jiang, Li, Yang and Chang 2019 TLO [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus longshanensis Li and Wu in Li, Wu, Leng, Zhou, Pan, Han, Li and Liang 2018 [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus punctatus Lan and Yang in Lan, Qin, Lan, Xiu and Yang 2017 [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus simengensis Li, Wu, Li and Lan in Wu, Li, Lan and Li 2018 [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus "xiaotunensis" [Yu, Wang, An, Ma and Shao 2021] TLO [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus mashanensis Wu, Liao and Li 2010 TLO [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus longicornus Xu, Luo, Zhou, Wu, Zhao, Yang, Xiao and Zhou 2023 TLO [NE] China
Sinocyclocheilus xingyiensis Luo, Tang, Deng, Duan and Zhang 2023 TLO [NE] China
Speolabeo musaei (Kottelat and Steiner 2010) Kottelat 2017 MuG TLO [VU D2:3.1:2011] Laos
Bangana musaei
Speolabeo hokhanhi Tan, Cao, Deng and Zhang 2018 MuG TLO [NE] Vietnam
Troglocyclocheilus khammouanensis Kottelat and Brehier 1999 MG TLO [VU D2:3.1:2011] Laos
Typhlobarbus nudiventris Chu and Chen 1982 MG TLO [VU D2:2.3:1996] China

Family: Leuciscidae (1 species)

Telestes karsticus Marčić, Buj, Duplić, Ćaleta, Mustafić, Zanella, Zupančič and Mrakovčić 2011 EN B2ab(i,ii,iii) Dinaric Karst Croatia

Order: Characiformes (3 species)

Suborder: Characoidei (3 species)

Family: Characidae (3 species)

Astyanax jordani (Hubbs and Innes 1936) Buckup 2003 [NE] México
Anoptichthys jordaniAnoptichthys antrobiusAnoptichthys hubbsiAstyanax fasciatusAstyanax mexicanus
Astyanax aeneus (Günther 1860) TMP [NE] México

Order: Gymnotiformes (1 species)

Suborder: Sternopygoidei (1 species)

Family: Sternopygidae (1 species)

Order: Siluriformes (92 species)

Suborder: Loricarioidei (42 species)

Family: Astroblepidae (2 species)

Astroblepus pholeter Collette 1962 [NT:3.1:2016] Ecuador
Astroblepus riberae Cardona and Guerao 1994 TLO [DD:3.1:2016] Peru

Family: Callichthyidae (1 species)

Aspidoras mephisto Tencatt and Bichuette 2017 TLO [NE] Brazil
Aspidoras albater

Family: Loricariidae (6 species)

Ancistrus galani Perez and Viloria 1994 TLO [NE] Venezuela
Ancistrus formoso Sabino and Trajano 1997 [NE] [VU D2:3.1:2011] Brazil
Ancistrus undescribed species Bodoquena [Cordeiro, Borghezan and Trajano 2014] [NE] Brazil
Chaetostoma undescribed species [Lujan 2017 pers. comm.] TLO [NE] Ecuador
Isbrueckerichthys alipionis (Gosline 1947) Derijst 1996 TLO [NE] Brazil
Pareiorhaphis alipionis

Family: Trichomycteridae (33 species)

Copionodon undescribed species Igatu [Trajano and Bichuette 2007] [NE] Brazil
Glaphyropoma spinosum Bichuette, de Pinna and Trajano 2008 [NE] [VU B1ab(iii):3.1:2011] Brazil
Ituglanis passensis Fernandez and Bichuette 2002 TLO [NE] [VU D2:3.1:2011] Brazil
Trichomycterus sp.
Ituglanis bambui Bichuette and Trajano 2004 [NE] [CR B2ab(iii,v):3.1:2011] Brazil
Ituglanis epikarsticus Bichuette and Trajano 2004 TLO [NE] [VU D2:3.1:2011] Brazil
Ituglanis ramiroi Bichuette and Trajano 2004 TLO [NE] [VU D2:3.1:2011] Brazil
Ituglanis mambai Bichuette and Trajano 2008 TLO [NE] [EN D:3.1:2011] Brazil
Ituglanis boticario Rizzato and Bichuette 2014 [NE] Brazil
Ituglanis undescribed species Posse [Rizzato and Bichuette 2017] [NE] Brazil
Silvinichthys bortayro Fernandez and De Pinna 2005 [NE] Argentina
Trichomycterus chaberti Durand 1968 TLO [LC:3.1:2016] Bolivia
Trichomycterus itacarambiensis Trajano and De Pinna 1996 TLO [NE] [CR B2ab(iii,v):3.1:2011] Brazil
Trichomycterus spelaeus DoNascimiento, Villarreal and Provenzano 2001 TLO [NE] Venezuela
Trichomycterus sandovali Ardila Rodriguez 2006 [VU D1:3.1:2021] Colombia
Trichomycterus santanderensis Castellanos-Morales 2007 TLO [CR B2ab(iii): 2021] Colombia
Trichomycterus uisae Castellanos-Morales 2008 TLO [LC:3.1:2016] Colombia
Trichomycterus sketi Castellanos-Morales 2010 TLO [VU D1:3.1:2021] Colombia
Trichomycterus dali Rizzato, Costa, Trajano and Bichuette 2011 [NE] [VU D2:3.1:2011] Brazil
Trichomycterus rubbioli Bichuette and Rizzato 2012 [NE] [VU D2:3.1:2011] Brazil
Trichomycterus undescribed species 6 [Perez and Moodie 1993] TLO [NE] Venezuela
Trichomycterus undescribed species 3 [Castellanos-Morales and Galvis 2012] [NE] Colombia
Trichomycterus undescribed species 4 [Castellanos-Morales and Galvis 2012] [NE] Colombia
Trichomycterus undescribed species 5 [Castellanos-Morales pers. comm. June 2018] [NE] Colombia
Trichomycterus rosablanca Mesa, Lasso, Ochoa and DoNascimiento 2018 [VU D1:3.1:2021] Colombia
Trichomycterus donascimientoi Castellanos-Morales 2018 [NE] Colombia
Trichomycterus undescribed species 1 Trajano and Bichuette 2007 [NE] Brazil
Trichomycterus undescribed species Ramalho Mattox et al. 2008 [NE] Brazil
Trichomycterus spectrum DoNascimiento and Prada-Pedreros 2020 [TLO [LC:3.1:2021]] Colombia
Trichomycterus undescribed species 7 [Galan 1995] [NE] Venzuela
Trichomycterus undescribed species 8 [Galan 1995] [NE] Venzuela

Suborder: Siluroidei (50 species)

Family: Amblycipitidae (1 species)

Xiurenbagrus dorsalis Xiu, Yang and Zheng 2014 TLO [NE] China
Xiurenbagrus dorsalis

Family: Clariidae (6 species)

Horaglanis krishnai Menon 1950 MuG [DD:3.1:2011] India
Horaglanis alikunhii Subhash Babu and Nayar 2004 MuG [DD:3.1:2011] India
Horaglanis abdulkalami Subhash Babu 2012 MuG TLO [NE] India
Horaglanis populi Raghavan, Sundar, Arjun, Britz and Dahanukar 2023 [NE] India
Uegitglanis zammaranoi Gianferrari 1923 MG [VU D2:3.1:2010] Somalia
Uegitglanis zammaranoi baidoaensis

Family: Heptapteridae (26 species)

Pimelodella kronei (Miranda Ribeiro 1907) Pavan 1946 [DD:2.3:1996] [EN B2ab(ii,iii):3.1:2011] Brazil
Typhlobagrus kroneiPimelodella lateristriga var. kroneiCaecorhamdella brasiliensis
Pimelodella spelaea Trajano, Reis and Bichuette 2004 TLO [NE] [EN B2ab(iii).3.1:2011] Brazil
Rhamdia urichi (Norman 1926) Mees 1974 TLO [NE] Trinidad and Tobago
Caecorhamdia urichiCaecorhamdella urichiRhamdia quelen urichi
Rhamdia typhla Greenfield, Greenfield, and Woods 1982 TLO [NE] Belize
Rhamdia laticauda typhla
Rhamdia zongolicensis Wilkens 1993 [VU D2:3.1:2019] México
Rhamdia laticauda
Rhamdia macuspanensis Weber and Wilkens 1998 TLO [NT:3.1:2019] México
Rhamdia laluchensis Weber, Allegrucci and Sbordoni 2003 TLO [VU:3.1:2019] México
Rhamdia guasarensis DoNascimiento, Provenzano and Lundberg 2004 TLO [NE] Venezuela
Rhamdia enfurnada Bichuette and Trajano 2005 [NE] Brazil
Rhamdia undescribed species Bodoquena [Mattox et al. 2008] [NE] Brazil
Rhamdia undescribed species 1 [Mosier 1984] TLO [NE] Mexico
Rhamdia undescribed species 2 [Mosier 1984] TLO [NE] Mexico
Rhamdia undescribed species 3 [Mosier 1984] TLO [NE] Mexico
Rhamdia undescribed species 4 [Mosier 1984] TLO [NE] Mexico
Rhamdia undescribed species 5 [Mosier 1984] TLO [NE] Mexico
Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858) TMP
Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864) TMP
Rhamdiopsis krugi Bockmann and Castro 2010 [NE] [VU B1ab(iii):3.1:2011] Brazil
Rhamdiopsis undescribed species Goncalo [Trajano and Bichuette 2007] [NE] Brazil
Rhamdiopsis undescribed species Cordisburgo [Trajano and Bichuette 2007] [NE] Brazil
Rhamdiopsis undescribed species Ramalho 1 [Mattox et al. 2008] [NE] Brazil
Rhamdiopsis undescribed species Caatinga [Bichuette 2021] [NE] Brazil
Rhamdiopsis undescribed species Ramalho 2 [Bichuette 2021] [NE] Brazil

Family: Ictaluridae (4 species)

Prietella lundbergi Walsh and Gilbert 1995 MuG [VU D2:3.1:2009] México
Satan eurystomus Hubbs and Bailey 1947 MG [VU D2:3.1:2014] USA

Family: Kryptoglanidae (2 species)

Kryptoglanis shajii Vincent and Thomas 2011 MuG [NE] India
Kryptoglanis undescribed species [Vincent 2012] MuG [NE] India

Family: Phreatobiidae (8 species)

Phreatobius cisternarum Goeldi 1905 MuG [DD:3.1:1996] Brazil
Heptapterus cisternarum
Phreatobius dracunculus Shibatta, Muriel-Cunha and De Pinna 2007 MuG TLO [NE] Brazil
Phreatobius sanguijuela Fernandez, Saucedo, Carvajal and Schaefer 2007 MuG [CR B2ab(iii):3.1:2016] Bolivia, Brazil
Phreatobius undescribed species Anapixi [Muriel-Cunha 2008] MuG [NE] Brazil
Phreatobius undescribed species Jaú [Muriel-Cunha 2008] MuG [NE] Brazil
Phreatobius undescribed species Tarumanzinho [Muriel-Cunha 2008] MuG [NE] Brazil
Phreatobius undescribed species Viruá [Muriel-Cunha 2008] MuG [NE] Brazil
Phreatobius undescribed species Aripuana [Muriel-Cunha 2008] MuG [NE] Brasil

Family: Siluridae (3 species)

Pterocryptis cucphuongensis (Mai 1978) Ng and Kottelat 1998 TLO [DD:3.1:2012] Vietnam
Silurus cucphuongensis
Pterocryptis buccata Ng and Kottelat 1998 TLO [DD:3.1:2012] Thailand
Silurichthys sp.Silurus sp.Pterocryptes sp.
Pterocryptis undescribed species [Clarke 2003] TLO [NE] China

Order: Percopsiformes (16 species)

Suborder: Percopsiformes (16 species)

Family: Amblyopsidae (16 species)

Amblyopsis hoosieri Niemiller, Prejean and Chakrabarty 2014 in Chakrabarty, Prejean and Niemiller 2014 MuG [NE] USA
Typhlichthys wyandotteAmblyopsis spelaea “N”Amblyopsis spelaea
Troglichthys rosae Eigenmann 1898 MG [NT:3.1:2014] USA
Typhlichthys rosaeAmblyopsis rosaeAmblyopsis rosae whitaeAmblyopsis rosae arkansasus
Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard 1859 MuG [NT:3.1:2014] [NT:3.1:2013 (Niemiller et al. 2013)] USA
Typhlichthys osborniTyphlichthys wyandotteTyphlichthys eigenmanni
Typhlichthys eigenmanni Charlton 1933 MuG[NE] [NT:3.1:2013 (Niemiller et al. 2013)] USA
Typhlichthys subterraneus
Typhlichthys undescribed species lineage A [Niemiller et. al. 2013] MuG [NE] [VU B1ab(iii):3.1:2013 (Niemiller et al. 2013)] USA
Typhlichthys subterraneus
Typhlichthys undescribed species lineage B [Niemiller et. al. 2013] MuG [NE] [VU B1ab(iii):3.1:2013 (Niemiller et al. 2013)] USA
Typhlichthys subterraneus
Typhlichthys undescribed species lineage C [Niemiller et. al. 2013] MuG [NE] [EN B1ab(iii):3.1:2013 (Niemiller et al. 2013)] USA
Typhlichthys subterraneus
Typhlichthys undescribed species lineage D [Niemiller et. al. 2013] MuG [NE] [EN B1ab(iii):3.1:2013 (Niemiller et al. 2013)] USA
Typhlichthys subterraneus
Typhlichthys undescribed species lineage E [Niemiller et. al. 2013] MuG [NE] [EN B1ab(iii):3.1:2013 (Niemiller et al. 2013)] USA
Typhlichthys subterraneus
Typhlichthys undescribed species lineage F [Niemiller et. al. 2013] MuG [NE] [VU B1ab(iii):3.1:2013 (Niemiller et al. 2013)] USA
Typhlichthys subterraneus
Typhlichthys undescribed species lineage G [Niemiller et. al. 2013] MuG [NE] [EN B1ab(iii):3.1:2013 (Niemiller et al. 2013)] USA
Typhlichthys subterraneus
Typhlichthys undescribed species lineage M [Niemiller et. al. 2013] MuG [NE] [CR B1ab(iii):3.1:2013 (Niemiller et al. 2013)] USA
Typhlichthys subterraneus
Typhlichthys undescribed species lineage Key Cave [Hart 2016] TLO MuG [NE] [CR B1ab(iii):3.1:2016:Hart 2016] USA
Typhlichthys subterraneus
Typhlichthys undescribed species [Graening, Fenolio and Slay 2011] MuG [NE] USA
Typhlichthys subterraneus

Order: Ophidiiformes (15 species)

Suborder: Bythitoidei (15 species)

Family: Bythitidae (12 species)

Lucifuga subterranea Poey 1858 MuG [VU D2:2.3:1996] Cuba
Lucifuga subterraneusLucifuga teresinarum
Lucifuga dentata Poey 1858 MuG [NE] Cuba
Lucifuga dentatusStygicola dentatus
Lucifuga undescribed species 5 [Lara et al. 2010] MuG [NE] Cuba
Lucifuga spelaeotes Cohen and Robins 1970 MuG [VU B1ab(iii):3.1:2015] Bahamas
Lucifuga lucayana Moller, Schwarzhans, Iliffe and Nielsen 2006 MuG [EN B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii):3.1:2015] Bahamas
Lucifuga spelaeotes
Lucifuga undescribed species 6 [Navarro-Mendoza and Valdes-Casillas 1990] MuG [NE] Mexico
Lucifuga gibarensis Hernandez, Moller, Casane and Garcia-Machado 2020 MuG [NE] Cuba
Lucifuga dentatus var. holguinensisLucifuga holguinensis
Lucifuga undescribed species 1 Garcia-Machado et al. 2011 MuG [NE] Cuba
Lucifuga undescribed species 2 Garcia-Machado et al. 2011 MuG TLO [NE] Cuba
Lucifuga undescribed species 3 Garcia-Machado et al. 2011 MuG TLO [NE] Cuba
Lucifuga undescribed species 4 Garcia-Machado et al. 2011 MuG TLO [NE] Cuba

Family: Dinematichthyidae (3 species)

Diancistrus typhlops Nielsen, Schwarzhans and Hadiaty 2009 [NE] Indonesia
Ogilbia galapagosensis (Poll and Leleup, 1965) Cohen and Nielson 1978 [VU D2:3.1:2010] Galapagos
Caecogilbia galapagosensis
Typhlias pearsei Hubbs 1938 MG [NT:3.1:2018] México
Typhlisina pearseiOgilbia pearsei

Order: Gobiiformes (19 species)

Suborder: Gobioidei (19 species)

Family: Butidae (3 species)

Bostrychus microphthalmus Hoese and Kottelat 2005 [NE] Indonesia
Oxyeleotris caeca Allen 1996 TLO [VU D2:3.1:2019] PNG
Oxyeleotris colasi Pouyaud, Kadarusman and Hadiaty in Pouyaud, Kadarusman, Hadiaty, Slembrouck, Lemauk, Kusumah and Keith 2013 TLO [VU D2:3.1:2019] PNG

Family: Eleotrididae (2 species)

Caecieleotris morrisi Walsh and Chakrabarty 2016 MG TLO [NE] Mexico
Eleotris undescribed species [Myers and Donaldson 2003] TLO [NE] Guam

Family: Gobiidae (9 species)

Caecogobius cryptophthalmus Berti and Ercolini 1991 TLO MuG [NE] Philippines
Caecogobius personatus Larson and Husana 2018 TLO MuG [NE] Philippines
Glossogobius ankaranensis Banister 1994 TLO [LC:3.1:2016] Madagascar
Glossogobius undescribed species [Sparks and Chakrabarty 2012] [NE] Madagascar
Luciogobius fluvialis Kanagawa, Itai and Senou 2011 TLO [DD 3.1 2019] Japan
Luciogobius fonticola Kanagawa, Itai and Senou 2011 [DD 3.1 2019] Japan
Luciogobius dormitoris Shiogaki and Dotsu 1976 [DD 3.1 2019] Japan

Family: Milyeringidae (5 species)

Milyeringa veritas Whitley 1945 MuG [EN B1ab(ii,iii)+2ab(ii,iii): 3.1: 2019] Australia
Milyeringa brooksi
Milyeringa justitia Larson and Foster in Larson, Foster Humphreys and Stevens 2013 MuG [CR B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii):3.1:2019] Australia
Typhleotris pauliani Arnoult 1959 TLO, MuG [CR B1ab(iii):3.1:2016] Madagascar
Typhleotris mararybe Sparks and Chakrabarty 2012 MuG [CR B1ab(iii):3.1:2016] Madagascar

Order: Synbranchiformes (10 species)

Suborder: Synbranchoidei (10 species)

Family: Synbranchidae (10 species)

Ophichthys terricolus Britz, Standing, Gower and Kamei 2023 [NE] India
Ophisternon infernale (Hubbs 1938) Rosen and Greenwood 1976 [EN B2ab(ii,iii):3.1:2019] México
Pluto infernalisFurmastix infernalisSynbranchus infernalis
Ophisternon candidum (Mees 1962) Rosen and Greenwood 1976 [DD:2.3:1996] Australia
Anomatophasma candidum
Rakthamichthys indicus (Eapen 1963) Britz, Dahanukar, Standing, Philip, Kumar, and Raghavan 2020 TLO [DD:3.1:2011] India
Monopterus indicusMonopterus “indicus”Monopterus eapeni
Rakthamichthys roseni (Bailey and Gans 1998) Britz, Dahanukar, Standing, Philip, Kumar and Raghavan 2020 [DD:3.1:2011] India
Monopterus roseni
Rakthamichthys digressus (Gopi 2002) Britz, Dahanukar, Standing, Philip, Kumar and Raghavan 2020 [DD:3.1:2011] India
Monopterus digressus
Rakthamichthys rongsaw (Britz, Sykes, Gower and Kamei 2018) Britz, Dahanukar, Standing, Philip, Kumar and Raghavan 2020 TLO [NE] India
Monopterus rongsaw
Rakthamichthys mumba Praveenraj, Thackeray, Mohapatra, and Pavan-Kumar 2021 TLO [NE] India
Synbranchus undescribed species [Galan 1982] [NE] Venezuela
Typhlosynbranchus luticolus (Britz, Doherty-Bone, Kouete, Sykes and Gower 2016) Britz, Dahanukar, Standing, Philip, Kumar and Raghavan 2020 [NE] Cameroon
Monopterus luticolus

Order: Cyprinodontiformes (1 species)

Suborder: Cyprinodontoidei (1 species)

Family: Poeciliidae (1 species)

Poecilia mexicana Steindachner 1863 TMP [NE] México
Poecilia sphenopsMollienisia sphenops

Order: Perciformes (3 species)

Suborder: Cottoidei (3 species)

Family: Cottidae (3 species)

Cottus undescribed species [Espinasa, Smith and Lindquist 2021] [NE] USA
Cottus bairdii-cognatus complex
Cottus specus Adams and Burr in Adams, Burr, Day and Starkey 2013 [NE] USA
Cottus carolinae species group
Cottus bairdii Girard 1850 TMP [NE] USA

Order: Anabantiformes (1 species)

Suborder: Channoidei (1 species)

Family: Aenigmachannidae (1 species)

Aenigmachanna gollum Britz, Anoop, Dahanukar and Raghavan 2019 MG [NE] India
Aenigmachanna mahabali