Checklist of troglomorphic fishes from non-subterranean habitats

In addition to those species of fishes which live in caves, in groundwaters and in the interstitial, all of which are considered to be subterranean habitats (Culver and Pipan 2009, Culver and Pipan 2014, Culver and Pipan 2019), there a number of species which have evolved troglomorphic facies as a result of living in habitats which are not subterranean but which are substantially and permanently without light. The two principle habitats are the abyssal depth of deep rivers and those rivers which have very densely coloured black waters. A wonderful account of the fishes of some of these habitats, with quite excelent photographs, is provided by Fenolio (2016). Distrubtion details for Amazon fishes are taken from Dagosta and de Pinna (2019) and van der Sleen and Albert (2018).

Species accounts for the troglomorphic non-subterranean fishes have yet to be written but will be written as time allows.

Total: 49 species

Order: Cypriniformes (1 species)

Suborder: Cobitoidei (1 species)

Family: Cobitidae (1 species)

Lepidocephalus spectrum Roberts 1989 [VU B1ab(iii):3.1:2020] Indonesia: freshwater

Order: Gymnotiformes (3 species)

Suborder: Sternopygoidei (3 species)

Family: Apteronotidae (3 species)

Orthosternarchus tamandua (Boulenger 1898) Ellis 1913 MG [LC:3.1:2018] Amazon River: freshwater
Sternarchus tamanduaSternarchorhamphus tamandua
Sternarchella raptor (Lundberg, Fernandes, Albert and Garcia 1996) Evans, Crampton and Albert 2017 [NE] Amazon River: freshwater
Magosternarchus raptor
Sternarchorhamphus muelleri (Steindachner 1881) Eigenmann in Eigenmann and Ward 1905 MG [NE] Amazon River: freshwater
Sternarchus (Rhamphosternarchus) muelleri

Order: Siluriformes (14 species)

Suborder: Loricarioidei (3 species)

Family: Loricariidae (2 species)

Panaque bathyphilus Lujan and Chamon 2008 TLO [NE] Amazon River: freshwater
Peckoltia pankimpuju (Lujan and Chamon 2008) Armbuster, Werneke and Tan 2015 TLO [NE] Amazon River: freshwater
Hemiancistrus pankimpuju

Family: Trichomycteridae (1 species)

Pareiodon microps Kner 1855 MG [NE] Amazon River: freshwater

Suborder: Siluroidei (9 species)

Family: Clariidae (4 species)

Channallabes apus (Günther 1873) Teugels 1986 [LC:3.1:2010] Lower Congo River: freshwater
Gymnallabes apus
Dolichallabes microphthalmus Poll 1942 [LC:3.1:2010] Lower Congo River: freshwater
Gymnallabes nops Roberts and Stewart 1976 [VU D2:3.1:2010] Lower Congo River: freshwater
Platyallabes tihoni (Poll 1944) Poll 1977 [LC:3.1:2010] Lower Congo River: freshwater
Gymnallabes tihoni

Family: Claroteidae (1 species)

Notoglanidium pallidum Roberts and Stewart 1976 [VU:D2:2010] Lower Congo River: freshwater

Family: Aspredinidae (3 species)

Micromyzon akamai Friel and Lundberg 1996 [NE] Amazon River: freshwater
Micromyzon orinoco Carvalho, Lundberg, Baskin, Friel and Reis 2016 [NE] Orinoco River: freshwater
Xyliphius sofiae Sabaj, Carvalho, and Reis in Carvalho, Reis and Sabaj 2017 [NE] Amazon River: freshwater

Family: Mochokidae (1 species)

Chiloglanis undescribed species "Kinsuka" [Stiassny and Alter] [NE] Lower Congo River: freshwater

Suborder: Cetopsoidei (2 species)

Family: Cetopsidae (2 species)

Cetopsis oliveirai (Lundberg and Rapp Py-Daniel 1994) Vari, Ferraris and de Pinna 2005 [NE] Brazil
Bathycetopsis oliveirai
Cetopsis coecutiens (Lichtenstein 1819)
Silurus coecutiens

Order: Ophidiiformes (3 species)

Suborder: Bythitoidei (3 species)

Family: Dinematichthyidae (3 species)

Dermatopsis macrodon Ogilby 1896 [NE] Australia: marine
Dipulus caecus Waite 1905 [NE] Australia: marine
Monothrix polylepis Ogilby 1897 MG [NE] Australia: marine

Order: Gobiiformes (16 species)

Suborder: Gobioidei (16 species)

Family: Gobiidae (16 species)

Austrolethops wardi Whitley 1935 [LC:3.1:2015] Indo-West Pacific: marine
Brachyamblyopus brachysoma (Bleeker 1854) [NE] Indo-West Pacific: freshwater, brackish
Amblyopus brachysoma
Caragobius urolepis (Bleeker 1852) [LC:3.1:2012] Indo-West Pacific: freshwater, brackish
Amblyopus urolepis
Ctenotrypauchen chinensis Steindachner 1867 [NE] Western Pacific: marine
Karsten totoyensis (Garman 1903) [NE] Western Pacific: marine
Gobioides totoyensis
Lethops connectens Hubbs 1926 MG [NE] Eastern Pacific: marine
Odontamblyopus rubicundus (Hamilton Buchanan 1822) [NE] NE Indian Ocean: freshwater, brackish, marine
Gobioides rubicundus
Paratrypauchen microcephalus (Bleeker 1860) Murdy 2008 [NE] Inro-West Pacific:brackish, marine
Trypauchen microcephalus
Pseudotrypauchen multiradiatus Hardenberg 1931 [NE] India, Malaysia, Sumatra: brackish, marine
Taenioides anguillaris (Linnaeus 1758) [NE] Indo-West Pacific: freshwater, brackish
Gobius anguillaris
Taenioides buchanani (Day 1873) [NE] Northern Indian Ocean: brackish, marine
Amblyopus buchanani
Taenioides cirratus (Blyth 1860) [DD:3.1:2012] Indo-West Pacific: freshwater, brackish, mari
Amblyopus cirratus
Taenioides eruptionis (Bleeker 1849) [NE] Western Pacific: marine
Amblyopus eruptionis
Trypauchenichthys sumatrensis Hardenberg 1931 [NE] Indo-West Pacific: brackish
Trypauchenichthys typus Bleeker 1860 [NE] Western Pacific: freshwater
Typhlogobius californiensis Steindachner 1879 MG [NE] USA: marine
Othonops eos

Order: Synbranchiformes (6 species)

Suborder: Synbranchoidei (2 species)

Family: Synbranchidae (2 species)

Macrotrema caligans (Cantor 1849) Regan 1912 MG [NE] Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore
Symbranchus caligans
Typhlosynbranchus boueti Pellegrin 1922 [DD:3.1:2020] West Africa: freshwater
Monopterus boueti

Suborder: Mastacembeloidei (4 species)

Family: Mastacembelidae (4 species)

Mastacembelus aviceps Roberts and Stewart 1976 [VU:D2:2010] Lower Congo River: freshwater
Mastacembelus brichardi (Poll 1958) Roberts and Stewart 1976 [LC:3.1:2010] Lower Congo River: freshwater
Caecomastacembelus brichardi
Mastacembelus crassus Roberts and Stewart 1976 [VU:D2:3.1:2010] Lower Congo River: freshwater
Mastacembelus latens Roberts and Stewart 1976 [VU D2:3.1:2010] Lower Congo River: freshwater

Order: Cichliformes (1 species)

Family: Cichlidae (1 species)

Lamprologus lethops Roberts and Stewart 1976 [DD:3.1:2010] Lower Congo River: freshwater

Order: Pleuronectiformes (3 species)

Suborder: Pleuronectoidei (3 species)

Family: Soleidae (3 species)

Typhlachirus caecus (Hardenberg 1931) Hardenberg 1931 [DD:3.1:2021] Indonesia: marine
Cryptops coeca
Typhlachirus elongatus Pellegrin and Chevey 1940 [LC:3.1:2012] Mekong River delta: freshwater, brackish, mar
Brachirus elongatus
Typhlachirus lipophthalmus (Károli 1882) Chabanaud 1948 [DD:3.1:2021] Malaysia: marine
Synaptura lipophthalma

Order: Osteoglossiformes (1 species)

Suborder: No suborder (1 species)

Family: Mormyridae (1 species)

Stomatorhinus microps Boulenger 1898 [VU D2:3.1:2010] Lower Congo River: freshwater