Checklist of troglomorphic fishes from non-subterranean habitats

In addition to those species of fishes which live in caves, in groundwaters and in the interstitial, all of which are considered to be subterranean habitats (Culver and Pipan 2009, Culver and Pipan 2014), there a number of species which have evolved troglomorphic facies as a result of living in habitats which are not subterranean but which are substantially and permanently without light. The two principle habitats are the abyssal depth of deep rivers and those rivers which have very densely coloured black waters. A wonderful account of the fishes of some of these habitats, with quite excelent photographs, is provided by Fenolio (2016).

Species accounts for the troglomorphic non-subterranean fishes have yet to be written but will be written as time allows.

Total: 42 species

Order: Cypriniformes (1 species)

Suborder: Cobitoidei (1 species)

Family: Cobitidae (1 species)

Lepidocephalus spectrum [NE] Kapuas River, Indonesia:fw

Order: Gymnotiformes (3 species)

Suborder: Sternopygoidei (3 species)

Family: Apteronotidae (3 species)

Orthosternarchus tamandua MG [NE] Amazon River basin:fw
Sternarchorhamphus muelleri MG [NE] Amazon Riber basin:fw
Sternarchella raptor [NE] Amazon River basin:fw
Magosternarchus raptor

Order: Siluriformes (9 species)

Suborder: Loricarioidei (1 species)

Family: Trichomycteridae (1 species)

Pareiodon microps MG [NE] Amazon River basin:fw

Suborder: Siluroidei (8 species)

Family: Clariidae (4 species)

Channallabes apus [LC:3.1:2010] Congo River system:fw
Gymnallabes apus
Dolichallabes microphthalmus [LC:3.1:2010] Congo River system:fw
Platyallabes tihoni [LC:3.1:2010] Central Africa:fw
Dolichallabes tihoni
Gymnallabes nops [VU D2:3.1:2010] Lower Congo River:fw

Family: Claroteidae (1 species)

Notoglanidium pallidum [VU D2:3.1:2010] Lower Congo River:fw

Family: Aspredinidae (3 species)

Micromyzon akamai [NE] Lower Amazon River:fw

Order: Ophidiiformes (3 species)

Suborder: Bythitoidei (3 species)

Family: Dinematichthyidae (3 species)

Dermatopsis macrodon [NE] Australia:m
Dipulus caecus [NE] Western Australia:m
Monothrix polylepis MG [NE] Southeastern Australia:m

Order: Gobiiformes (17 species)

Suborder: Gobioidei (17 species)

Family: Gobiidae (17 species)

Typhlogobius californiensis MG [NE] Eastern Pacific:m
Othonops eos
Lethops connectens MG [NE] Eastern Pacific:m
Caragobius urolepis [LC:3.1:2012] Indo-West Pacific:fw,b
Brachyamblyopus brachysoma [NE] Indo-West Pacific:fw,b
Karsten totoyensis [NE] Western Pacific:m
Trypauchenopsis intermedia [NE] West, South, East Pacific:fw
Pseudotrypauchen multiradiatus [NE] India, Malaysia, Sumatra:m
Taenioides anguillaris [NE] Indo-West Pacific:b
Taenioides buchanani [NE] Northern Indian Ocean:b,m
Taenioides cirratus [DD:3.1:2012] Indo-West and east Pacific:fw,b,m
Taenioides eruptionis [NE] Western Pacific:m
Odontamblyopus rubicundus [NE] Northeastern Indian Ocean:fw,b,m
Paratrypauchen microcephalus [NE] Indonesia:b,m
Ctenotrypauchen chinensis [NE] Western Pacific: m
Tyrpauchen vagina [NE] Indo-West and east Pacific:b.m
Trypauchenichthys sumatrensis [NE] Indo-West and east Pacific:b
Trypauchenichthys typus [NE] Western Pacific,fw

Order: Synbranchiformes (6 species)

Suborder: Synbranchoidei (2 species)

Family: Synbranchidae (2 species)

Monopterus boueti [DD:3.1:2010] West Africa:fw
Macrotrema caligans MG [NE] Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore:fw,b

Suborder: Mastacembeloidei (4 species)

Family: Mastacembelidae (4 species)

Mastacembelus aviceps [VU D2:3.1:2010] Congo River:fw
Mastacembelus brichardi [LC:3.1:2010] Democratic Republic of Congo:fw
Caecomastacembelus brichardi
Mastacembelus crassus [VU D2:3.1:2010] Congo River:fw
Mastacembelus latens [VU D2:3.1:2010] Congo River:fw

Order: Cichliformes (1 species)

Family: Cichlidae (1 species)

Lamprologus lethops [DD:3.1:2010] Congo River:fw

Order: Pleuronectiformes (2 species)

Suborder: Pleuronectoidei (2 species)

Family: Soleidae (2 species)

Typhlachirus caecus MG [NE] Indonesia:b,m
Brachirus elongatus [LC:3.1:2012] Mekong River Delta: b
Typhlachirus elongatus