Checklist of troglomorphic fishes from non-subterranean habitats

In addition to those species of fishes which live in caves, in groundwaters and in the interstitial, all of which are considered to be subterranean habitats (Culver and Pipan 2009, Culver and Pipan 2014, Culver and Pipan 2019), there a number of species which have evolved troglomorphic facies as a result of living in habitats which are not subterranean but which are substantially and permanently without light. The two principle habitats are the abyssal depth of deep rivers and those rivers which have very densely coloured black waters. A wonderful account of the fishes of some of these habitats, with quite excelent photographs, is provided by Fenolio (2016).

Species accounts for the troglomorphic non-subterranean fishes have yet to be written but will be written as time allows.

Total: 45 species

Order: Cypriniformes (1 species)

Suborder: Cobitoidei (1 species)

Family: Cobitidae (1 species)

Lepidocephalus spectrum Roberts 1989 [NE] Kapuas River, Indonesia:fw

Order: Gymnotiformes (3 species)

Suborder: Sternopygoidei (3 species)

Family: Apteronotidae (3 species)

Orthosternarchus tamandua (Boulenger 1898) MG [NE] Amazon River basin:fw
Sternarchella raptor (Lundberg, Fernandes, Albert and Garcia 1996) Evans, Crampton and Albert 2017 [NE] Amazon River basin:fw
Magosternarchus raptor
Sternarchorhamphus muelleri (Steindachner 1881) MG [NE] Amazon Riber basin:fw

Order: Siluriformes (11 species)

Suborder: Loricarioidei (3 species)

Family: Loricariidae (2 species)

Panaque bathyphilus Lujan and Chamon 2008 TLO [NE] Brazil
Peckoltia pankimpuju (Lujan and Chamon 2008) Armbuster, Werneke and Tan 2015 TLO [NE] Peru
Hemiancistrus pankimpuju

Family: Trichomycteridae (1 species)

Pareiodon microps Kner 1855 MG [NE] Amazon River basin:fw

Suborder: Siluroidei (8 species)

Family: Clariidae (4 species)

Channallabes apus (Günther 1873) [LC:3.1:2010] Congo River system:fw
Gymnallabes apus
Dolichallabes microphthalmus Poll 1942 [LC:3.1:2010] Congo River system:fw
Gymnallabes nops Roberts and Stewart 1976 [VU D2:3.1:2010] Lower Congo River:fw
Platyallabes tihoni (Poll 1944) Poll 1977 [LC:3.1:2010] Central Africa:fw
Dolichallabes tihoni

Family: Claroteidae (1 species)

Notoglanidium pallidum Roberts and Stewart 1976 [VU D2:3.1:2010] Lower Congo River:fw

Family: Aspredinidae (3 species)

Micromyzon akamai Friel and Lundberg 1996 [NE] Lower Amazon River:fw
Micromyzon orinoco Carvalho, Lundberg, Baskin, Friel and Reis 2016 [NE]
Xyliphius sofiae Carvalho and Reis in Carvalho, Reis and Sabaj 2017 [NE]

Order: Ophidiiformes (3 species)

Suborder: Bythitoidei (3 species)

Family: Dinematichthyidae (3 species)

Dermatopsis macrodon Ogilby 1896 [NE] Australia:m
Dipulus caecus Waite 1905 [NE] Western Australia:m
Monothrix polylepis Ogilby 1897 MG [NE] Southeastern Australia:m

Order: Gobiiformes (17 species)

Suborder: Gobioidei (17 species)

Family: Gobiidae (17 species)

Brachyamblyopus brachysoma (Bleeker 1854) [NE] Indo-West Pacific:fw,b
Amblyopus brachysoma
Caragobius urolepis (Bleeker 1852) [LC:3.1:2012] Indo-West Pacific:fw,b
Ctenotrypauchen chinensis Steindachner 1867 [NE] Western Pacific: m
Karsten totoyensis (Garman 1903) [NE] Western Pacific:m
Lethops connectens Hubbs 1926 MG [NE] Eastern Pacific:m
Odontamblyopus rubicundus (Hamilton Buchanan 1822) [NE] Northeastern Indian Ocean:fw,b,m
Paratrypauchen microcephalus (Bleeker 1860) Murdy 2008 [NE] Indonesia:b,m
Trypauchen microcephalus
Pseudotrypauchen multiradiatus Hardenberg 1931 [NE] India, Malaysia, Sumatra:m
Taenioides anguillaris (Linnaeus 1758) [NE] Indo-West Pacific:b
Gobius anguillaris
Taenioides buchanani (Day 1873) [NE] Northern Indian Ocean:b,m
Amblyopus buchanani
Taenioides cirratus (Blyth 1860) [DD:3.1:2012] Indo-West and east Pacific:fw,b,m
Amblyopus cirratus
Taenioides eruptionis (Bleeker 1849) [NE] Western Pacific:m
Amblyopus eruptionis
Trypauchen vagina (Bloch, in Schneider 1801) [NE] Indo-West and east Pacific:b.m
Trypauchenichthys sumatrensis Hardenberg 1931 [NE] Indo-West and east Pacific:b
Trypauchenichthys typus Bleeker 1860 [NE] Western Pacific,fw
Trypauchenopsis intermedia Volz 1903 [NE] West, South, East Pacific:fw
Brachyamblyopus intermedius
Typhlogobius californiensis Steindachner 1879 MG [NE] Eastern Pacific:m
Othonops eos

Order: Synbranchiformes (6 species)

Suborder: Synbranchoidei (2 species)

Family: Synbranchidae (2 species)

Macrotrema caligans (Cantor 1849) Regan 1906 MG [NE] Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore:fw,b
Symbranchus caligans
Monopterus boueti (Pellegrin 1922) Rosen and Greenwood 1976 [DD:3.1:2010] West Africa:fw
Typhlosynbranchus boueti

Suborder: Mastacembeloidei (4 species)

Family: Mastacembelidae (4 species)

Mastacembelus aviceps Roberts and Stewart 1976 [VU D2:3.1:2010] Congo River:fw
Mastacembelus brichardi (Poll 1958) Vreven 2005 [LC:3.1:2010] Democratic Republic of Congo:fw
Caecomastacembelus brichardi
Mastacembelus crassus Roberts and Stewart 1976 [VU D2:3.1:2010] Congo River:fw
Mastacembelus latens Roberts and Stewart 1976 [VU D2:3.1:2010] Congo River:fw

Order: Cichliformes (1 species)

Family: Cichlidae (1 species)

Lamprologus lethops Roberts and Stewart 1976 [DD:3.1:2010] Congo River:fw

Order: Pleuronectiformes (3 species)

Suborder: Pleuronectoidei (3 species)

Family: Soleidae (3 species)

Typhlachirus caecus (Hardenberg 1931) [NE] Indonesia:b,m
Cryptops coeca
Typhlachirus elongatus Pellegrin and Chevey 1940 [LC:3.1:2012] Mekong River Delta: b
Brachirus elongatus
Typhlachirus lipophthalmus (Károli 1882) Chabanaud 1948 [NE] Sarawak
Synaptura lipophthalma