Metadata

Stygichthys typhlops

Brittan and Bohlke 1965

Stygichthys typhlops
X-ray of Stygichthys typhlops. Redrawn by Rhian Kendall from Brittan and Böhlke (1965)
ORDERSUB-ORDERFAMILY
CharaciformesCharacoideiCharacidae

Synonyms

None.

Country

Brazil

Types

Holotype: ANSP 100891 23.6mm SL. This species is the type‑species by original designation and monotypy of the cave‑restricted genus Stygichthys.

Distribution

Type locality: an undisclosed locality at Jaiba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil (c. 18oS, 44oW). Also recorded from xxxxxx.

Habitat

Nothing known. The fish was collected from water brought up from a depth of 30m during a well‑drilling operation.

Systematics

Oliveira et al. (2011) made an extensive ingroup study of the Family Characidae. Their results strongly support a sister group relationship between S. typhlops and the monotypic Coptobrycon bilineatus (Ellis 1911) (redescribed by Langeani and Serra 2010, see also Serra, Carvalho and Langeani 2007 and Buckup 2011), and a sister group relationship between these two species and a group consisting of Probolodus heterostomus, Deuterodon iguape and Myxiops aphos (Figure). All of these species are currently incertae sedis within Characidae. [Stygichthys typhlops specimen studied: LBP 8107, 37558, location Cacimba fazenda Lajeado, Jaíba, MG, Brazil, 15°24'41.7' S 43°45'19.7' W. Genbank accession numbers: 16S HQ171407, CytB HQ289694, Myh6 HQ289115, Rag1 HQ289308, Rag2 HQ289500].

Conservation Status

MG [DD:2.3:1996] [EN B2ab(ii,iii):3.1:2004]

Stygichthys typhlops is endemic to Brazil, found only in the water table in the drainage of the Dark Stream, a tributary of the Verde Grande river, upper São Francisco. Considering the extension of the stream, about 15km, it is estimated that the area of occupation is 15km2. This water table has been heavily downgraded by the extraction of water for banana cultivation on a large scale, which, in addition to decreasing the habitat available to the species, can also affect the food supply. As this threat affects the entire aquifer, it was considered only one location. A hydrological study is urgently needed in order to predict the maximum amount of water that can be removed from the sheet. The species was classified as EN B2ab (ii, iii).”

Museum Holdings

As above plus: LBP 8107, 37558

Key References

Brittan, M. R. and Bohlke, J. E. Journal Article 1965 A new blind Characid fish from southeastern Brazil
Trajano, E. Journal Article 1997 Synopsis of Brazilian troglomorphic fishes
Romero, Aldemaro and McLeran, Amy Journal Article 2000 Threatened fishes of the world: Stygichthys typhlops Brittan & Bohlke, 1965 (Characidae)
Moreira, CR, Bichuette, ME, Oyakawa, OT, Pinna, MCC de and Trajano, E Journal Article 2004 Rediscovery of Stygichthys typhlops Brittan and Bohlke, 1965, an enigmatic subterranean characiform fish from Jaiba karst area, eastern Brazil
Serra, JP, Carvalho, FR and Langeani, F Journal Article 2007 Ichthyofauna of the rio Itatinga in the Parque das Neblinas, Bertioga, São Paulo State: composition and biogeography
Moreira, CR and Trajano, E Book Section 2008 Stygichthys typhlops Brittan and Bohlke, 1965
Pompeu, Paulo dos Santos, Sampaio, Francisco Alexandre Costa and Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes Journal Article 2010 [Focus on: Stygichthys typhlops Brittan & Boehlke, 1965.]
Moreira, C. R., Bichuette, M. E., Oyakawa, O. T., de Pinna, M. C. C. and Trajano, E. Journal Article 2010 Rediscovery and redescription of the unusual subterranean characiform Stygichthys typhlops, with notes on its life history
Langeani, F and Serra, JP Journal Article 2010 Coptobrycon bilineatus (Ellis, 1911) (Characiformes: Characidae): redescription and comments on its phylogenetic relationships
Oliveira, Claudio, Avelino, Gleisy S., Abe, Kelly T., Mariguela, Tatiane C., Benine, Ricardo C., Orti, Guillermo, Vari, Richard P. and Correa e Castro, Ricardo M. Journal Article 2011 Phylogenetic relationships within the speciose family Characidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes) based on multilocus analysis and extensive ingroup sampling
Sampaio, Francisco Alexandre C., Pompeu, Paulo Santos and Lopes Ferreira, Rodrigo Journal Article 2012 Notes on Stygichthys typhlops (Characiformes; Characidae): characterization of their teeth and discussion about their diet
Costa Sampaio, F.A., Pompeu, P.S., de Andrade e Santos, H. and Ferreira, R.L. Journal Article 2012 Swimming performance of epigeal and hypogeal species of Characidae, with an emphasis on the troglobiotic Stygichthys typhlops Brittan & Bohlke, 1965
Simoes, Luiza Bertelli, Rantin, Bianca and Bichuette, Maria Elina Journal Article 2013 Notes on feeding and reproduction of the threatened phreatic fish Stygichthys typhlops Brittan & Bohlke, 1965 (Characiformes: Characidae) from eastern Brazil
Trajano, Eleonora and Moreira, Cristiano Rangel Journal Article 2014 Stygichthys typhlops Brittan & Bohlke, 1965 (Teleostei: Characiformes), a phreatobic fish from eastern Brazil: Comments on Sampaio et al. (2012)
Pompeu, Paulo Santos, Sampaio, Francisco Alexandre C. and Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes Journal Article 2014 Stygichthys typhlops (Teleostei: Characiformes), a phreatobic fish from eastern Brazil: Comments on Sampaio et al. (2012): A response
Trajano, E, Gallao, J.E and Bichuette, M. E. Journal Article 2016 Spots of high biodiversity of troglobites in Brazil: the challenge of measuring subterranean diversity
Gallão, J.E. and Bichuette M.E. Journal Article 2018 Brazilian obligatory subterranean fauna and threats to the hypogean environment
Maximum likelyhood tree for part of the Family Characidae showing the relationships of Stygichthys typhops (Figure 10 in Oliveira et al. 2011)