Brittan and Bohlke 1965
Holotype: ANSP 100891 23.6mm SL. This species is the type‑species by original designation and monotypy of the cave‑restricted genus Stygichthys.
Type locality: an undisclosed locality at Jaiba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil (c. 18oS, 44oW). Also recorded from xxxxxx.
Nothing known. The fish was collected from water brought up from a depth of 30m during a well‑drilling operation.
In a large study of the Family Characidae, based solely on morphological characters, Mirande (2010) was unable to draw any meaningful conclusions regarding the phylogeny of this species: "The position of this genus within Characidae is completely enigmatic; even its assignment to the Characidae can not be considered to be well justified. The single species of this genus, Stygichthys typhlops Brittan and Böhlke, has hypogean habits and some unique or much unusual features among the Characidae (Géry 1977). The presence in this species of a very short anal fin with only eight rays is unique within the Characidae. No information relevant to a hypothesis about the relationships of this genus is available and Stygichthys is maintained as incertae sedis within the Characidae."
Oliveira et al. (2011) made an extensive ingroup study of the Family Characidae. Their results strongly support a sister group relationship between S. typhlops and the monotypic Coptobrycon bilineatus (Ellis 1911) (redescribed by Langeani and Serra 2010, see also Serra, Carvalho and Langeani 2007 and Buckup 2011), and a sister group relationship between these two species and a group consisting of Probolodus heterostomus, Deuterodon iguape and Myxiops aphos (Figure below). All of these species are currently incertae sedis within Characidae. [Stygichthys typhlops specimen studied: LBP 8107, 37558, location Cacimba fazenda Lajeado, Jaíba, MG, Brazil, 15°24'41.7' S 43°45'19.7' W. Genbank accession numbers: 16S HQ171407, CytB HQ289694, Myh6 HQ289115, Rag1 HQ289308, Rag2 HQ289500].
In a study based on morphological and molecular data (Mirande 2018) the monotypic genus Stygichthys was placed in the Tribe Grundulini within the subfamily Stethaprioninae. Significantly, the four species shown to be sister species by Oliveira et al.2011 (see above and Figure) are also found close to Stygichthys within this tribe and it may be that we can now begin to explore the evolution of Stygichthys from its epigean ancestor.
The most recent study of the Family Characidae (Teran et al. 2020) has S. typhlops in a tree with Phycocharax rasbora, Cyanogaster noctivaga, "Hyphessobrycon" elachys and, again, Coptobrycon bilineatus.
“Stygichthys typhlops is endemic to Brazil, found only in the water table in the drainage of the Dark Stream, a tributary of the Verde Grande river, upper São Francisco. Considering the extension of the stream, about 15km, it is estimated that the area of occupation is 15km2. This water table has been heavily downgraded by the extraction of water for banana cultivation on a large scale, which, in addition to decreasing the habitat available to the species, can also affect the food supply. As this threat affects the entire aquifer, it was considered only one location. A hydrological study is urgently needed in order to predict the maximum amount of water that can be removed from the sheet. The species was classified as EN B2ab (ii, iii).”
As above plus: LBP 8107, 37558. LESCI 000230/002, 38.9 mm SL (Pastana et al. 2019)
- Brittan, M. R. and Bohlke, J. E. (1965)
- Trajano, E. (1997)
- Romero, A. and McLeran, A. (2000)
- Moreira, C.R., Bichuette, M.E., Oyakawa, O.T., de Pinna, M.C.C. and Trajano, E. (2004)
- Serra, J.P., Carvalho, F.R. and Langeani, F. (2007)
- Moreira, CR and Trajano, E (2008)
- Moreira, C.R., Bichuette, M.E., Oyakawa, O.T., de Pinna, M.C.C. and Trajano, E. (2010)
- Langeani, F. and Serra, J.P. (2010)
- Mirande, J.M. (2010)
- Pompeu, P.S., Sampaio, F.A.C. and Ferreira, R.L. (2010)
- Oliveira, Claudio, Avelino, Gleisy S., Abe, Kelly T., Mariguela, Tatiane C., Benine, Ricardo C., Orti, Guillermo, Vari, Richard P. and Correa e Castro, Ricardo M. (2011)
- Sampaio, F.A.C., Pompeu, P.S. and Ferreira, R.L. (2012)
- Sampaio, F.A.C., Pompeu, P.S., de Andrade e Santos, H. and Ferreira, R.L. (2012)
- Simoes, L.B., Rantin, B. and Bichuette, M.E. (2013)
- Trajano, E. and Moreira, C.R. (2014)
- Pompeu, P.S., Sampaio, F.A.C. and Ferreira, R.L. (2014)
- Trajano, E., Gallao, J.E. and Bichuette, M.E. (2016)
- Gallão, J.E. and Bichuette M.E. (2018)
- Mirande, J.M. (2018)
- Pastana, M.N.L., Bockmann, F.A. and Datovo, A. (2019)
- Terán, G.E., Benitez, M.F. and Mirande, J.M. (2020)
|Brittan, M. R. and Bohlke, J. E.||Journal Article||1965||A new blind Characid fish from southeastern Brazil|
|Trajano, E.||Journal Article||1997||Synopsis of Brazilian troglomorphic fishes|
|Romero, A. and McLeran, A.||Journal Article||2000||Threatened fishes of the world: Stygichthys typhlops Brittan & Bohlke, 1965 (Characidae)|
|Moreira, C.R., Bichuette, M.E., Oyakawa, O.T., de Pinna, M.C.C. and Trajano, E.||Journal Article||2004||Rediscovery of Stygichthys typhlops Brittan and Bohlke, 1965, an enigmatic subterranean characiform fish from Jaiba karst area, eastern Brazil|
|Serra, J.P., Carvalho, F.R. and Langeani, F.||Journal Article||2007||Ichthyofauna of the rio Itatinga in the Parque das Neblinas, Bertioga, São Paulo State: composition and biogeography|
|Moreira, CR and Trajano, E||Book Section||2008||Stygichthys typhlops Brittan and Bohlke, 1965|
|Moreira, C.R., Bichuette, M.E., Oyakawa, O.T., de Pinna, M.C.C. and Trajano, E.||Journal Article||2010||Rediscovery and redescription of the unusual subterranean characiform Stygichthys typhlops, with notes on its life history|
|Langeani, F. and Serra, J.P.||Journal Article||2010||Coptobrycon bilineatus (Ellis, 1911) (Characiformes: Characidae): redescription and comments on its phylogenetic relationships|
|Mirande, J.M.||Journal Article||2010||Phylogeny of the family Characidae (Teleostei: Characiformes): from characters to taxonomy|
|Pompeu, P.S., Sampaio, F.A.C. and Ferreira, R.L.||Journal Article||2010||Focus on: Stygichthys typhlops Brittan & Boehlke, 1965|
|Oliveira, Claudio, Avelino, Gleisy S., Abe, Kelly T., Mariguela, Tatiane C., Benine, Ricardo C., Orti, Guillermo, Vari, Richard P. and Correa e Castro, Ricardo M.||Journal Article||2011||Phylogenetic relationships within the speciose family Characidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes) based on multilocus analysis and extensive ingroup sampling|
|Sampaio, F.A.C., Pompeu, P.S. and Ferreira, R.L.||Journal Article||2012||Notes on Stygichthys typhlops (Characiformes; Characidae): characterization of their teeth and discussion about their diet|
|Sampaio, F.A.C., Pompeu, P.S., de Andrade e Santos, H. and Ferreira, R.L.||Journal Article||2012||Swimming performance of epigeal and hypogeal species of Characidae, with an emphasis on the troglobiotic Stygichthys typhlops Brittan and Bohlke 1965|
|Simoes, L.B., Rantin, B. and Bichuette, M.E.||Journal Article||2013||Notes on feeding and reproduction of the threatened phreatic fish Stygichthys typhlops Brittan & Bohlke, 1965 (Characiformes: Characidae) from eastern Brazil|
|Trajano, E. and Moreira, C.R.||Journal Article||2014||Stygichthys typhlops Brittan & Bohlke, 1965 (Teleostei: Characiformes), a phreatobic fish from eastern Brazil: Comments on Sampaio et al. (2012)|
|Pompeu, P.S., Sampaio, F.A.C. and Ferreira, R.L.||Journal Article||2014||Stygichthys typhlops (Teleostei: Characiformes), a phreatobic fish from eastern Brazil: Comments on Sampaio et al. (2012): A response|
|Trajano, E., Gallao, J.E. and Bichuette, M.E.||Journal Article||2016||Spots of high biodiversity of troglobites in Brazil: the challenge of measuring subterranean diversity|
|Gallão, J.E. and Bichuette M.E.||Journal Article||2018||Brazilian obligatory subterranean fauna and threats to the hypogean environment|
|Mirande, J.M.||Journal Article||2018||Morphology, molecules and the phylogeny of Characidae (Teleostei, Characiformes)|
|Pastana, M.N.L., Bockmann, F.A. and Datovo, A.||Journal Article||2019||The cephalic lateral-line system of Characiformes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi): anatomy and phylogenetic implications|
|Terán, G.E., Benitez, M.F. and Mirande, J.M.||Journal Article||2020||Opening the Trojan horse: phylogeny of Astyanax, two new genera and resurrection of Psalidodon (Teleostei: Characidae)|