Journal Article

Morphology, molecules and the phylogeny of Characidae (Teleostei, Characiformes)

Mirande, J.M.

Record Number:
4027
Year:
2018
Journal:
Cladistics
Abstract:
This is the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Characidae to date and the first large‐scale hypothesis of the family, combining myriad morphological data with molecular information. A total of 520 morphological characters were analysed herein, of which 98 are newly defined. Among the analysed taxa, 259 species were coded by examining specimens, three fossil species were coded from the literature, one species was coded almost completely from published figures, 122 were partially coded from the literature, and 88 were analysed exclusively from molecular data. The total number of species in the analysed dataset is 473. Analyses were made by parsimony under equal and extended implied weighting with a broad range of parameters. The final hypothesis was selected using a stability criterion that chooses among the most parsimonious trees of all searches. It was found by weighting molecular characters with the average homoplasy of entire partitions (markers). The resulting hypothesis is congruent with previous molecular‐based phylogenies of the family. The Characidae are monophyletic, with four main clades: the Spintherobolinae new subfamily; an expanded Stethaprioninae including the Grundulini, Gymnocharacini, Rhoadsiini and Stethaprionini; the Stevardiinae; and a clade composed of the Aphyocharacinae, Characinae, Cheirodontinae, Exodontinae and Tetragonopterinae. Also, a stem Characidae was found, as formed by the Eocene–Oligocene genera †Bryconetes and †Paleotetra as successive sister groups of extant members of the family. A subfamilial classification is proposed, but deep changes in the systematics that are beyond the scope of this study are still needed to classify the Characidae into monophyletic genera.
Times Cited:
3
Related Records:
Hubbs, C.L. and Innes, W.T. (1936)Gresser, E. B. and Breder, C. M. (1940)Bridges, W. (1940)Breder, C. M. and Gresser, E. B. (1941)Breder, C. M. and Gresser, E. B. (1941)Breder, C. M. and Gresser, E. B. (1941)Breder, C. M. (1942)Breder, C. M. (1943)Breder, C. M. (1943)Osorio Tafall, B. F. (1943)Breder, C. M. (1944)Alvarez, J. (1946)Schlagel, S. R. and Breder, C. M. (1947)Alvarez, J. (1947)Breder, C. M. and Rasquin, P. (1947)Breder, C. M. and Rasquin, P. (1947)Rasquin, P. (1949)Luling, K. H. (1953)Luling, K. H. (1953)Luling, K. H. (1953)Stefanelli, A. (1954)Stefanelli, A. (1954)Luling, K. H. (1954)Luling, K. H. (1954)Thines, G. (1954)Rasquin, P. and Rosenbloom, L. (1954)Luling, K. H. (1955)Luling, K. H. (1955)Sadoglu, P. (1956)Thines, G. and Kahling, J. (1957)Sadoglu, P. (1957)Sadoglu, P. (1957)Cahn, P. H. (1958)Grobbel, G. and Hahn, G. (1958)Kahling, J. (1961)Luling, K. H. (1962)Burgers, A. C. J., Bennink, P. J. H. and van Oordt, G. J. (1963)Franck, A. (1964)Thines, G., Wolff-Van Ermengem, F., Boucquey, C. and Soffie, M. (1965)Boucquey, C., Thines, G. and Van Der Borght, C. (1965)Brittan, M. R. and Bohlke, J. E. (1965)Carmignani, M. P. A. (1966)Peters, N. and Peters, G. (1966)Cavicchioli, G. and Guarnieri, P. (1966)Thines, G., Soffie, M. and Vandenbussche, E. (1966)Reed, M. (1966)Schemmel, C. (1967)Pfeiffer, W. (1967)Pfeiffer, W. (1967)Popper, A. N. and Tavolga, W. N. (1967)Walters, V. and Liu, R. K. (1967)Sadoglu, P. (1967)Carmignani, M. P. A. (1968)Mattheij, J. A. (1968)Mattheij, J. A. (1968)Wilkens, H. (1968)Sadoglu, P. and McKee, A. (1969)Mattheij, J. A. (1969)Mattheij, J. A. and Sprangers, J. A. P. (1969)Weiss, B. A. (1969)Wilkens, H. (1970)Wilkens, H. (1970)Popper, A. N. (1970)Mattheij, J. A. (1970)Mattheij, J. A. (1970)Weiss, B. and Martini, J. (1970)Gertychowa, R. (1970)Gertychowa, R. (1970)Whitt, G. S. and Maeda, F. S. (1970)Wilkens, H. (1970)Wilkens, H. (1971)Popper, A. N. (1971)Zaccone, G. (1971)Gertychowa, R. (1971)Wiley, S. and Mitchell, R. W. (1971)Wiley, S. and Mitchell, R. W. (1971)Wilkens, H. (1972)Wilkens, H. (1972)Wilkens, H. (1972)Avise, J. C. and Selander, R. K. (1972)Thines, G. and Wissocq, N. (1972)Wilkens, H. and Burns, R. J. (1972)Zaccone, G. (1972)Zeitlin, S. M. and McDevitt, D. S. (1973)Schemmel, C. (1973)Thines, G. and LeGrain, J. M. (1973)Yasuda, K. (1973)Durand, J. P. (1973)Voneida, T. J. (1973)Zeitlin, S. M. (1973)Mitchell, R. W. (1973)Zeitlin, S. M. and McDevitt, D. S. (1973)Schemmel, C. (1974)Schemmel, C. (1974)Chakraborty, R. and Nei, M. (1974)Sligar, C. (1974)Peters, N., Scholl, A. and Wilkens, H. (1975)Omura, Y. (1975)Sadoglu, P. (1975)Herwig, H. J. (1976)Herwig, H. J. (1976)Wilkens, H. (1976)Durand, J. P. (1976)Voneida, T. J. and Sligar, C. (1976)Erckens, W. and Weber, F. (1976)Sligar, C. and Voneida, T. J. (1976)Wilkens, H. (1977)Kirby, R. F., Thompson, K. W. and Hubbs, C. (1977)Yew, D. T. and Yoshihara, H. M. (1977)Zaccone, G. (1977)Mitchell, R. W., Russell, W. H. and Elliott, W. R. (1977)Thines, G. and Weyers, M. (1978)Durand, J. P. (1978)Sadoglu, P. (1979)Wilkens, H., Peters, H. and Schemmel, C. (1979)Woodhead, A. D. and Achey, P. M. (1979)Durand, J. P. (1979)Schemmel, C. (1980)Wilkens, H. (1980)Wilkens, H. (1980)Quinn, T. P. (1980)Weissert, R. (1980)Herwig, H. J. (1981)Campenhausen, C., Riess, I. and Weissert, R. (1981)Reddell, J. R. (1981)Weissert, R. and Campenhausen, C. (1981)Tabata, M. (1982)Jankowska, M. and Thines, G. (1982)Lamprecht, G. and Weber, F. (1982)Erckens, W. and Martin, W. (1982)Erckens, W. and Martin, W. (1982)Rose, F. L. and Mitchell, R. W. (1982)Romero, A. (1983)Zilles, K., Tillmann, B. and Bennemann, R. (1983)Parzefall, J. (1983)Wilkens, H. (1984)Schuppa, M. (1984)Voneida, T. J. and Fish, S. E. (1984)Romero, A. (1984)Romero, A. (1984)Teyke, T. (1985)Wilkens, H. (1985)Lamprecht, G. and Weber, F. (1985)Romero, A. (1985)Burchards, H., Dolle, A. and Parzefall, J. (1985)Espinasa, L (1986)Huppop, K. (1986)De Fraipont, M. (1986)Fraipont, M. (1986)Wilkens, H. (1986)De Fraipont, M. and Thines, G. (1986)De Fraipont, M. and Thines, G. (1986)Wilkens, H. and Huppop, K. (1986)Romero, A. (1986)Parzefall, J. (1986)Hassan, E. S. (1986)Huppop, K. (1987)De Fraipont, M. (1987)De Fraipont, M. (1987)Wilkens, H. (1987)Huppop, K. (1988)Teyke, T. (1988)De Fraipont, M. (1988)Wilkens, H. (1988)Fricke, D. (1988)Huppop, K. (1989)Teyke, T. (1989)Fack, H. and Wilkens, H. (1989)Langecker, T. G. (1989)Fricke, D. and Parzefall, J. (1989)Hassan, E. S. (1989)Parzefall, J. and Fricke, D. (1990)Peters, N., Schmidt, W. and Fricke, D. (1990)Abdel-Latif, H., Hassan, E. S. and von Campenhausen, C. (1990)Teyke, T. (1990)Klimpel, B. and Parzefall, J. (1990)Yokoyama, R. and Yokoyama, S. (1990)Yokoyama, R and Yokoyama, S (1990)Langecker, T. G. (1990)Campenhausen, C. (1991)Parzefall, J. and Fricke, D. (1991)Huppop, K. and Wilkens, H. (1991)Huppop, K. (1991)Riedel, G. and Krug, L. (1991)Langecker, T. G., Wilkens, H. and Junge, P. (1991)Parzefall, J. (1992)Hassan, E. S., Abdel-Latif, H. and Biebricher, R. (1992)Wilkens, H. and Meyer, M. (1992)De Fraipont, M. (1992)Wilkens, H. (1992)Lamprecht, G. and Weber, F. (1992)Langecker, T. G. and Longley, G. (1992)Parzefall, J. (1992)Parzefall, J. (1993)Hoffman, S. and Hausberg, C. (1993)Peters, N., Schacht, V., Schmidt, W. and Wilkens, H. (1993)Langecker, T. G. (1993)Langecker, T. G., Schmale, H. and Wilkens, H. (1993)Langecker, T. G., Schmale, H. and Wilkens, H. (1993)Teyke, T. and Schaerer, S. (1994)Borowsky, R. (1994)Yokoyama, S., Meany, A., Wilkens, H. and Yokoyama, R. (1995)Langecker, T. G., Neumann, B., Hausberg, C. and Parzefall, J. (1995)Langecker, T. G., Wilkens, H. and Schmale, H. (1995)Borowsky, R. (1996)Behrens, M., Langecker, T. G., Wilkens, H. and Schmale, H. (1997)Riedel, G. (1997)Riedel, G. and Krug, L. (1997)Borowsky, R. and Espinasa, L. (1997)Trajano, E. (1997)Contreras-Balderas, S. and Lozano-Vilano, M.D.L. (1998)Behrens, M, Wilkens, H and Schmale, H (1998)Jeffery, WR and Martasian, DP (1998)Wilkens, H. (1998)Baker, CF and Montgomery, J (1999)Kullander, S. O. (1999)Ford, D.C. (2000)Yamamoto, Y. and Jeffery, W. R. (2000)Jeffery, W. R., Strickler, A.G., Guiney, S., Heyser, D.G. and Tomarev, S.I. (2000)Espinasa, L. and Borowsky, R. (2000)Romero, A. and McLeran, A. (2000)Espinasa, L., Rivas-Manzano, P. and Perez, H.E. (2001)Strickler, A.G., Yamamoto, Y. and Jeffery, W. R. (2001)Jeffery, W. R. (2001)Espinasa, L. and Borowsky, R. (2001)Boudriot, F and Reutter, K (2001)Montgomery, J.C., Coombs, S. and Baker, C.F. (2001)Strickler, AG, Famuditimi, K and Jeffery, WR (2002)Krejca, J. (2002)Berg, A and Watson, GM (2002)Romero, A., Jeffery, W.R. and Yamamoto, Y. (2002)Dowling, TE, Martasian, DP and Jeffery, WR (2002)Borowsky, RL and Wilkens, H (2002)Strecker, U. (2003)Sarma, SSS, Lopez-Romulo, A and Nandini, S (2003)Porter, M.L. and Crandall, K.A. (2003)Strecker, U., Bernatchez, L. and Wilkens, H. (2003)Contreras-Balderas, S, Almada-Villela, P, Lozano-Vilano, M de L and Garcia-Ramirez, ME (2003)Wilkens, H. and Strecker, U. (2003)Moreira, CR, Bichuette, ME, Oyakawa, OT, Pinna, MCC de and Trajano, E (2004)McCauley, DW, Hixon, E and Jeffery, WR (2004)Protas ME, Hersey C, Kochanek D, Zhou Y, Wilkens H, Jeffery WR, Zon LI, Borowsky R, Tabin CJ. (2006)Protas, M., Conrad, M., Gross, J.B., Tabin, C. and Borowsky, R.L. (2007)Serra, J.P., Carvalho, F.R. and Langeani, F. (2007)Moreira, CR and Trajano, E (2008)Protas, M, Tabansky, I, Conrad, M, Gross, JB, Vidal, O, Tabin, C and Borowsky, RL (2008)Gross, JB, Protas, M, Conrad, M, Scheid, PE, Vidal, O and others (2008)Kowalko, J, Gross, JB, Protas, M, Borowsky, RL and Tabin, C (2009)Jeffery, WR (2009)Pompeu, P.S., Sampaio, F.A.C. and Ferreira, R.L. (2010)Moreira, C. R., Bichuette, M. E., Oyakawa, O. T., de Pinna, M. C. C. and Trajano, E. (2010)Langeani, F and Serra, JP (2010)Mirande, J.M. (2010)Mirande, J.M. (2010)Espinasa, L (2011)Esquivel-Bobadilla, S (2011)Kowalko, J, Rohner, N, Borowsky, RL and Tabin, C (2011)Esquivel-Bobadilla, S (2011)Bradic, M, Beerli, P and Borowsky, RL (2011)Oliveira, Claudio, Avelino, Gleisy S., Abe, Kelly T., Mariguela, Tatiane C., Benine, Ricardo C., Orti, Guillermo, Vari, Richard P. and Correa e Castro, Ricardo M. (2011)Sampaio, F.A.C., Pompeu, P.S. and Ferreira, R.L. (2012)Jeffery, W.R. (2012)Sampaio, F.A.C., Pompeu, P.S., de Andrade e Santos, H. and Ferreira, R.L. (2012)Wilkens, H. (2012)Trontelj, P. (2012)Protas, M. and Jeffery, W. R. (2012)Gross, J.B. (2012)Bradic, M., Beerli, P., Garcia-de Leon, F. J., Esquivel-Bobadilla, S. and Borowsky, R. L. (2012)Simoes, Luiza Bertelli, Rantin, Bianca and Bichuette, Maria Elina (2013)Elliott, William R. (2013)Kowalko, J. E., Rohner, N., Rompani, S. B., Peterson, B. K., Linden, T. A., Yoshizawa, M., Kay, E. H., Weber, J., Hoekstra, H. E., Jeffery, W. R., Borowsky, R. and Tabin, C. J. (2013)Rohner, N., Jarosz, D. F., Kowalko, J. E., Yoshizawa, M., Jeffery, W. R., Borowsky, R. L., Lindquist, S. and Tabin, C. J. (2013)Rohner, N (2013)Kowalko, J., Rohner, N., Linden, T.A., Rompani SB, Warren, W.C., Borowsky, R, Tabin, C.J., Jeffery, W.R. and Yoshizawa M. (2013)Gross, J.B., Furterer, A., Carlson, B.M. and Stahl, B.A. (2013)Stahl, B. A. and Gross, J. B. (2013)Stahl, AL (2013)Bradic, M., Teotonio, H. and Borowsky, R. L. (2013)Bibliowicz, J., Alie, A., Espinasa, L., Yoshizawa, M., Blin, M., Hinaux, H., Legendre, L., Pere, S. and Retaux, S. (2013)Pazza, R (2013)Pazza, R (2013)Trajano, Eleonora and Moreira, Cristiano Rangel (2014)Espinasa, L., Bartolo, N.D. and Newkirk, C.E. (2014)Pompeu, P.S., Sampaio, F.A.C. and Ferreira, R.L. (2014)McGaugh, S.E., Gross, J.B., Aken, B., Blin, M., Borowsky, R., Chalopin, D., Hinaux, H., Jeffery, W.R., Keene, A., Ma, L., Minx, P., Murphy, D., O'Quin, K.E., Retaux, S., Rohner, N., Searl, S.M., Stahl, B.A., Tabin, C., Volff, J.N., Yoshizawa M, Warren WC. (2014)Moran, D., Softley, R. and Warrant, E.J. (2014)Elliott, W.R. (2014)Silva, D. M. Z. A., Utsunomia, R., Pansonato-Alves, J.C., Oliveira, C. and Foresti, F. (2015)Silva, D. M. Z. A., Utsunomia, R., Pansonato-Alves, J.C., Oliveira, C. and Foresti, F. (2015)Hinaux, Helene, Blin, Maryline, Fumey, Julien, Legendre, Laurent, Heuze, Aurelie, Casane, Didier and Retaux, Sylvie (2015)McGaugh, S. E. (2015)Fumey, J. (2015)Moran, D., Softley, R. and Warrant, E.J. (2015)Aspiras, A.C., Rohner, N., Martineau, B., Borowsky, R.L. and Tabin, C.J. (2015)Bradic, M, Rohner, N, Tabin, C and Borowsky, R. (2015)Rohner, N (2015)Stahl, Bethany A. and Gross, Joshua B. (2015)Stahl, B. A., Ma, L and Gross, J. B. (2015)Caballero-Hernandez, O., Hernandez-Patricio, M., Sigala-Regalado, I., Morales-Malacara, J. B. and Miranda-Anaya, M. (2015)Devos, Lucie, Alie, A. and Retaux, S (2015)Yoshizawa, Masato, Robinson, Beatriz G., Duboue, Erik R., Masek, Pavel, Jaggard, James B., O'Quin, Kelly E., Borowsky, Richard L., Jeffery, William R. and Keene, Alex C. (2015)Jaggard, J. B. (2015)Schmitter-Soto, JJ (2016)Trajano, E, Gallao, J.E and Bichuette, M. E. (2016)Casane, D and Retaux, S (2016)O'Quin, Kelly and McGaugh, Suzanne E. (2016)Beale, A., Whitmore, D. and Moran, D. (2016)Rohner, Nicolas (2016)Aspiras, A., Tabin, C. and Rohner, N. (2016)Gross, J.B., Stahl, B.A., Powers, A.K. and Carlson, B.M. (2016)Schmitter-Soto, JJ (2016)Retaux, Sylvie, Alie, Alexandre, Blin, Maryline, Devos, Lucie, Elipot, Yannick and Hinaux, Helene (2016)Keene, A.C., Yoshizawa, M. and McGaugh, S.E. (2016)Wilkens, H. and Strecker, U. (2017)Alvarado, C.G. (2017)Schmitter-Soto, JJ (2017)Fumey J, Hinaux H, Noirot C, Thermes C, Re´ taux S, Casane D. (2017)Krishnan, J and Rohner, N (2017)Jaggard, J. B., Robinson, B. G., Stahl, B, Oh, I, Masek, P, Yoshizawa, M and Keene, A. (2017)Stahl, B (2017)Stahl, B.A. and Gross, J.B. (2017)Schmitter-Soto, JJ (2017)Hinaux, H, Recher, G, Alie, A., Legendre, L, Blin, M. and Retaux, S (2017)Jaggard, J. B. (2017)Mirande, J.M. (2018)Jaggard, J.B., Stahl, B.A., Lloyd, E., Prober, D.A., Duboue, E.R. and Keene, A.C. (2018)Elliott, W.R. (2018)Mirande, J.M. (2018)Elliott, W.R. (2018)Kling, J. (2018)Chin, J.S.R., Gassant, C.E., Amaral, P.M., Lloyd, E., Stahl, B.A., Jaggarda, J.B., Keenea, A.C. and Duboue, E.R. (2018)Borowsky, R. (2018)Tabin, J.A., Aspiras, A., Martineau, B., Riddle, M., Kowalko, J. Borowsky, R. Rohner, N. and Tabin, C.J. (2018)Devitsina, G.V. and Golovkina, T.V. (2018)Stern, D.B and Crandall, K.A. (2018)Borowsky, R., Luk, A., He, X.J. and Kim, R.S. (2018)Xiong, S., Krishnan, J., Peuß, F. and Rohner, N. (2018)Borowsky, R., Luk, A., He, X.J. and Kim, R.S. (2018)Gallão, J.E. and Bichuette M.E. (2018)Espinasa, L. (2018)Garita-Alvarado, C.A., Barluenga, M. and Ornelas-García, C.P. (2018)Devitsina, G.V. and Golovkina, T.V. (2018)Fumey, J., Hinaux, H., Noirot, C., Thermes, C., Rétaux, S. and Casane, D. (2018)Kopp, J., Avasthi, S. and Espinasa, L. (2018)Gross, J.B., Weagley, J., Stahl, B.A., Ma, L., Espinasa, L. and McGaugh, S.E. (2018)Riddle, M.R., Aspiras, A.C., Gaudenz, K., Peuß, R., Sung, J.Y., Martineau, B., Peavey, M., Box, A.C., Tabin, J.A., McGaugh, S., Borowsky, R., Tabin, C.J. and Rohner, N. (2018)Rohner, N. (2018)Espinasa, L. (2018)Pazza, R., Dergam, J.A. and Kavalco, K.F. (2018)Espinasa, L., Legendre, L., Fumey, J., Blin, M., Rétaux, S. and Espinasa, M. (2018)Mirande, J.M. (2018)Alie, A., Devos, L., Torres-Paz, J., Prunier, L., Boulet, F., Blin, M., Elipot, Y. and Retaux, S. (2018)Pazza, R., Dergam, J.A. and Kavalco, K.F. (2018)