Journal Article

Cryptic species and grey zone speciation of the Barbodes binotatus complex (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) in Sundaland

Ng, C.K-C. and Tan, J.

Record Number:
5550
Year:
2021
Journal:
Journal of Fish Biology
Pages:
1256–1273
Volume:
99
Abstract:
Morphology-based taxonomy of freshwater fish is effective when there are represen- tative specimens covering large regions. However, in Sundaland, where the presence of cryptic species is high, the technique has its limitations. This is compounded by uncritical descriptions of holotypes in old literature. We demonstrate the problem using Barbodes binotatus first described from an ink drawing. Several species in the Barbodes genus of Sundaland exhibit morphological similarity to B. binotatus.We applied new DNA sequences of 16S, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cyto- chrome b (Cytb) and recombination-activating gene 1 (RAG1), and pigmentation markers to clarify species complex boundaries in the Malay Peninsula, namely B. aff. binotatus “Malay Peninsula”, Barbodes cf. banksi and Barbodes rhombeus. Results sug- gest B. binotatus-like specimens in the Malay Peninsula are B. rhombeus based on a threshold of 3% COI genetic divergence. B. aff. binotatus recorded in Sumatra, Borneo and the Philippines are likely valid but undescribed species. However, if the 2% COI threshold is applied, some populations in the northern Malay Peninsula would qualify as new and undescribed species. The implications of the 2% threshold and the likelihood of “grey zone” incipient populations are discussed. We further found a rapid visual method, not reported previously, to delineate B. aff. binotatus and B. cf. banksi, but it requires further validation. Additionally, we offer fresh perspectives by discussing the roles of biological species concept, morphological species concept, genetic species concept and mate recognition concept in the B. binotatus complex. Our findings reinforce the standpoint that species delineation is not entirely a binary process, but there is a spectrum to consider, especially in biogeography intersection regions. KEYWORDS biodiversity, biogeography, incipient species, species complex, species concept
Times Cited:
2
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