Journal Article

Patterns of diversification and phylogenetic structure in the dorsolateral head musculature of Neotropical electric eels (Ostariophysi: Gymnotiformes), with a myological synonymy

Peixoto, L.A.W. and de Pinna, M.

Record Number:
5813
Year:
2022
Journal:
Neotropical Ichthyology
Pages:
1-117
Volume:
20(1):e210009
URL:
ni.bio.br | scielo.br/ni
Abstract:
The present study offers a broad comparative analysis of the dorsolateral head musculature in the Gymnotiformes, with detailed descriptions and illustrations of the dorsolateral head muscles of 83 species representing combined all valid genera. Results permit a detailed assessment of primary homologies and taxonomically-relevant variation across the order. This provides the basis for a myological synonymy, which organizes 33 previously proposed names for 15 recognized muscles. Morphological variation derived from dorsolateral head musculature was coded into 56 characters. When analyzed in isolation, that set of characters results in Gymnotidae as the sister group of remaining gymnotiforms, and all other currently recognized families as monophyletic groups. In a second analysis, myological characters were concatenated with other previously proposed characters into a phenotypic matrix. Results of that analysis reveal new myological synapomorphies for nearly all taxonomic categories within Gymnotiformes. A Partitioned Bremer Support (PBS) was used to asses the significance of comparative myology in elucidating phylogenetic relationships. PBS values show strongly non-uniform distributions on the tree, with positive scores skewed towards more inclusive taxa, and negative PBS values concentrated on less inclusive clades. Our results provide background for future studies on biomechanical constraints evolved in the early stages of gymnotiform evolution. Keywords: Anatomy, Electric fishes, Myology, Phylogeny, Partitioned Bremer Support.
Times Cited:
1
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