Rhamdiopsis krugi

Bockmann and Castro 2010



Rhamdiopsis krugi appears to be one of the most troglomorphic fishes known.


Rhamdella sp.   (Trajano 1993)

Imparfinis sp.   (Mendes 1995, Trajano and Menna-Barreto 1995)




Holotype. LIRP 5929, 37.1 mm SL, Brazil, State of Bahia, Municipality of Itaetê, Poço Encantado cave, on the left margin of the rio Una (a right side affluent of rio Paraguaçu) 12º56’41.8’’S 41º06’17.3’’W, ca. 340 m a.s.l., 11 Jan 1991, R. M. C. Castro, L. Krug, L. F. Mendes & H. F. Santos.

Paratypes. LIRP 5930, 10, 20.4-35.5 mm SL, 2 c&s (27.8-35.0 mm SL), MZUSP 92609, 2, 29.4-31.0 mm SL, collected with the holotype; LIRP 5928, 10, 20.8-33.9 mm SL, 2 c&s (25.9-33.9 mm SL), Brazil, State of Bahia, Municipality of Itaetê, Lapa do Bode cave, adjacent to the left margin of the rio Una (a right side affluent of rio Paraguaçu) 12º56’06.5’’S 41º03’53.9’’W, ca. 340 m a.s.l., 2 Nov 1991, R. M. C. Castro, P. Gnaspini Neto, L. F. Mendes, P. Schwartz & E. Trajano; LIRP 5931, 34.9 mm SL, Brazil, State of Bahia, Municipality of Itaetê, Gruta Natal cave, on the right margin of the rio Una (a right side affluent of rio Paraguaçu) 12º59’32.4’’S 41º05’32.8’’W, ca. 340 m a.s.l., 23 Jan 1994, E. Trajano.


Type locality: Poço Encantado cave, on the left margin of the rio Una (a right affluent of rio Paraguaçu), 12°56'41.8"S, 41°06'17.3"W, Municipality of Itactê, State of Bahia, Brazil, elevation about 340 meters. Also known from xxxxxxxxxxx

Conservation Status

[NE] [VU B1ab(iii):3.1:2011]

Rhamdiopsis krugi is endemic to Brazil, being extremely specialized and known only from limestone caves in the region of Chapada Diamantina, central Bahia, in the Paraguaçu River Basin. It is known from ten caves, which represent six locations, in an extent of occurrence of 125km2. All caves are outside the Conservation Unit and some are subject to impacts, such as the presence of livestock around the cave, causing burial (Lapa do Bode), pesticide and nitrogen pollution from cow urine (Pratinha Systems), activities (Blue Well) and the disorderly exploitation of groundwater through artesian wells, which may lead to declining groundwater (Iraquara region). These activities have led to a continued decline in habitat quality. Thus, Rhamdiopsis krugi was categorized as Vulnerable (VU) in criterion B1ab (iii). It is essential to organize and supervise these activities, in addition to the urgent implementation of management plans for these caves. [Google Translate].

Museum Holdings

As above only.

Key References

Trajano, E. Journal Article 1993 Considerations about systematics and the evolution of behavior in Siluriform cave fishes
Mendes, LF Journal Article 1995 Observations on the ecology and behaviour of a new species of troglobitic catfish from northeastern Brazil (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae)
Trajano, E. and Menna-Barreto, L. Journal Article 1995 Locomotor activity pattern of Brazilian cave catfishes under constant darkness (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae)
Trajano, E Journal Article 1997 Food and reproduction of Trichomycterus itacarambiensis, a cave catfish from south-eastern Brazil
Trajano, E. and Bockmann, F. A. Journal Article 2000 Ecology and behaviour of a new cave catfish of the genus Taunayia from north-eastern Brazil (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae)
Ribeiro, AC Journal Article 2006 Tectonic history and the biogeography of freshwater fishes from the coastal drainages of eastern Brazil: an example of faunal evolution associated with a divergent continental margin
Bockmann, FA and Castro, RMC Journal Article 2010 The blind catfishes from the caves of Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae): description, anatomy, phylogenetic relationships, natural history and biogeography
Trajano, E, Gallao, J.E and Bichuette, M. E. Journal Article 2016 Spots of high biodiversity of troglobites in Brazil: the challenge of measuring subterranean diversity
Gallão, J.E. and Bichuette M.E. Journal Article 2018 Brazilian obligatory subterranean fauna and threats to the hypogean environment