Metadata

Astyanax jordani

(Hubbs and Innes 1936) Buckup 2003

Astyanax jordani
Astyanax jordani from Cueva de El Pachon. Photograph by Jean Louis Lacaille Múzquiz
ORDERSUB-ORDERFAMILY
CharaciformesCharacoideiCharacidae

Note

The status of the hypogean populations of Astyanax species in San Luis Potosi and Tamaulipas, Mexico, and the consequences for taxonomy and nomenclature, have been debated since their discovery in 1936. The problems have been exacerbated because there are no modern taxonomic or systematic studies of the genus. Although originally included in a separate genus (Anoptichthys) most references to these animals called them either Astyanax mexicanus (de Filippi 1853) or Astyanax  fasciatus (Cuvier 1819). This was in recognition that the hypogean and epigean populations are able to interbreed, a tenet of the Biological Species Concept. There are however many important autapomorphies in the hypogean populations and, under the Phylogenetic Species Concept, the hypogean and epigean animals are separate species. This debate will continue, but I have decided here to follow my own instincts and include the hypogean forms as a separate species. This decision is supported in the most recent authoritative account of the genus (Buckup 2003). In this account A. jordani is treated as a valid separate species, and is not placed in the synonymy of either A. fasciatus or A. mexicanus. Numerous other authors (e.g. Reddell 1981; Trajano 2001) accept that the hypogean and epigean fishes belong to different species. See also the discussion of this topic in Kullander (1999:339-340) which also concludes that the epigean and hypogean populations must be considered as separate species. Two of the most recent reviews of the biology of the fishes (Wilkens and Strecker 2017, Elliott 2018) also draw this conclusion.

There are complications ahead, as it is very likely that more than one invasion of caves from the surface has taken place and that more than one species is now present in the caves of the area. However, at least one of these (from the type locality, Cueva Chica) will be validly Astyanax jordani. The others will obtain names when the situation is better understood.

Synonyms

Anoptichthys jordani  Hubbs and Innes 1936

Anoptichthys antrobius  Alvarez 1946

Anoptichthys hubbsi  Alvarez 1947

These are the only true synonyms. Since the cave fish has often been regarded as conspecific with Astyanax mexicanus (de Filippi, 1853), and with Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819), it has often been referred to under these names. Reddell (1981:238 243, 325) provides a list of names used and a full bibliography to that date.

Country

México

Types

Holotype of Anoptichthys jordani: UMMZ 113514, adult 51mm SL. Paratypes of Anoptichthys jordani: UMMZ 114486, 4 specimens; BMNH 1951.12.3:14‑17; plus others.

Distribution

Type locality: La Cueva Chica, San Luis Potosí, México. Sites from which this species has been recorded are distributed from 21o50’ – 23o10’N, 98o50’ – 99o14’W, see Mitchell, Russell and Elliott (1977) and Elliott (2018) for full details. Caves in which the fishes are found in seven areas:

Area and cave Length (m) Depth (m)
Gómez-Farías area    
Sótano de Jineo + 302 144
Sótano del Molino 658 138
Sótano Escondido + 100 148
Chamal-Ocampo area    
Bee Cave + 245 119
Sótano de Caballo Moro 285 211
Sótano de Vásquez 1500 277
Northern Sierra de El Abra    
Cueva de El Pachón 1000 8
Sótano del Venadito + 3663 206
Yerbaniz cluster    
Sótano de Yerbaniz 2238 97
Sótano de Matapalma 1722 86
Sótano de Japonés 4500 140
Los Sabinos area    
Sótano del Tigre + 3000 162
Sótano de la Roca + 20 42
Cueva de Los Sabinos 1502 96
Sótano del Arroyo 7202 133
Sótano de la Tinaja 4502 82
Sótano de Soyate + 206 234
Sótano de Pichijumo (Montecillos) 1330 82
Sótano de Jos + 338 85
Sótano de las Piedras 405 52
Sótano de la Palma Seca 164 54
Southern Sierra de El Abra    
Cueva de la Curva 214 19
Sótano de Toro 66 5
La Cueva Chica * 302 19
Los Cuates + 400 33
Cueva Chiquitita 20 16
Cueva de Otates + 269 15
Micos and Tamasopo areas    
Cueva del Río Subterráneo 475 32
Cueva del Otates 269 15
Cueva Lienzo + 225 23
Cueva del Fraile + 50 10

The known distribution of Astyanax jordani. * type locailty, + caves not yet sampled for genetic studies and therefore of high priority to do so. Information from Elliott (2018)

Habitat

Most of the populations are known from lakes and streams within the vadose region of the caves. Two exceptions to this are the populations in Sótano de Soyate and Sótano del Venadito which are almost certainly living in the low level phreatic zone of the karst area. In particular the Soyate population is in a huge deep lake-like area which is probably the main groundwater flow in this area. During high flow the water levels rise considerably and fishes from the phreatic populations may become washed into vadose areas and become stranded there for a time.

Systematics

This fish is the most extensively studied of cave dwelling animals. The reason for its pre-eminence is that it is easy to breed in captivity and interfertile with the epigean Astyanax mexicanus. These properties allow very detailed studies, and in particular genetical ones, to be made easily. A large number of publications have resulted from these studies (see Elliott (2018) and this web site for bibliographies) but there has been great confusion as to the name and status of the animal. The following discussion outlines the problem and poses a solution.

The first population to be discovered, in La Cueva Chica, was described by Hubbs and Innes (1936) as a new genus and species, Anoptichthys jordani. In the following ten years two other populations were discovered in La Cueva de El Pachon and La Cueva de Los Sabinos. Alvarez (1946, 1947) included them in the genus Anoptichthys as Anoptichthys antrobius and Anoptichthys hubbsi respectively. It is now known that the cave fishes are widespread (Mitchell, Russell, and Elliott 1977), (Reddell 1981:238‑243, 325), (Elliott 2018)  and there are now 31 known sites.

In their original description of Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs and Innes (1936) recognised that: "Anoptichthys agrees with the genus and subgenus Astyanax in all apparent characters other than those associated with blindness and subterranean life". The epigean Astyanax mexicanus (for a discussion of the Astyanax mexicanus / Astyanax fasciatus “problem” see Miller and Smith 1986) and the hypogean Anoptichthys jordani are not only very similar in morphology, but they possess the same (or very similar) karyotype (Kirby, Thompson, and Hubbs 1977) and are interfertile. These, plus the sympatric distribution, provide strong evidence that Anoptichthys jordani is very closely related to, and in all probability, directly evolved from, Astyanax mexicanus. There is therefore no reason for recognising a distinct genus for the cave fishes. (See Greenwood (1976), Roberts and Stewart (1976), and Banister and Bunni (1980) for discussions of this philosophy). So, should the cave and surface fishes be regarded as members of the same species (with specifically adapted local races) or as distinct subspecies or species within the genus Astyanax ? Most authors have uncritically accepted that they are conspecific because of the interfertility. However there are a number of trenchant differences between the epigean and hypogean populations. They differ in fright reaction (Pfeiffer 1977), feeding behaviour (Schemmel 1980), the distribution and density of the taste buds (Schemmel 1980), metabolic rate (Huppop 1986), the neuromasts of the lateral line (Teyke 1990) and in competitive abilities within the cave environment (Wilkens and Hüppop 1986). Although the epigean fishes can survive and breed in darkness (contrary to the evidence of Rasquin and Rosenbloom 1954) they are out-competed by the better adapted cave fish (Wilkens and Hüppop 1986). It is certain that the hypogean fishes could neither compete nor survive on the surface. The genetic distance (as calculated by Nei's D parameter) is also relevant to this discussion. Values for D of 0.142 (Pachon population) and 0.105 (Sabinos population) (Chakraborty and Nei 1974) fall within the ranges for both subspecies (0.004 ‑ 0.351) and species (0.004 ‑ 3.000) and above that for local races (0.000 ‑ 0.049) as given by Nei (1987). A simple reading of the biological species concept (Mayr 1970:12) would confine both surface and cave fishes to the same species as a result of their interfertility. Rosen (1979:275‑278; see also Kottelat (1997:10-20)) has argued however that the biological species concept is worthless as a determiner of relationships since its primary definer, reproductive compatibility, is a primitive (plesiomorphic) attribute of members of a lineage. It therefore has no power to specify relationships within a genealogical framework. In the present case it is obvious that the cave form exhibits a number of autapomorphies (see above). The two forms should therefore be considered as good separate sister species which have not yet attained reproductive isolation.

The taxonomic consequences of this would be: one species of cave‑dwelling fish Astyanax jordani (Hubbs and Innes 1936) with one junior objective synonym, Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs and Innes 1936, and two junior subjective synonyms, Anoptichthys antrobius Alvarez 1946 and Anoptichthys hubbsi Alvarez 1947.

The above discussion is based principally on morphology. Recent work by Richard Borowsky (e.g. Borowsky 1994, 1996; Borowsky and Espinasa 1997; Borowsky and Wilkens 2002; Espinasa and Borowsky 2000, 2001), indicates that there may have been at least three independent invasions of surface fishes all of which now exhibit similar troglomorphic facies. If this is the case, and we accept that genetic characters are useful, then there should have three different names (see Kottelat (1997) for an excellent discussion of these points). Recently Dowling, Martasian and Jeffery (2002), Strecker, Bernatchez and Wilkens (2003) and Wilkens and Strecker (2003) have also shown that some cave populations are independently derived from surface fishes.

Oliveira et al. (2011) made an extensive ingroup study of the Family Characidae. Their results strongly support a sister group relationship between Astyanax jordani and a group containing Astyanax aeneus, Bramocharax caballeroi and Bramocharax baileyi (Figure below), and explicitally not a sister group relationship with Astyanax mexicanus, which is sister to the four species listed above.

The above discussion was largely written for the first edition of my book (Proudlove 2006) and needs revising in the light of much information discovered in the 14 years since it was writen. However, it is worth empasising that the conclusion of the discussion, that the cave fishes should be called Astyanax jordani, is strongly supported in the two most recent reviews of the these fishes, their habitats and their history (Wilkens and Strecker 2017:70-74 and Elliott 2018:39-44) and in an extensive phylogentic study of the Family Characidae (Oliveira  et al. 2011) - see phylogenetic tree below.

Biological Notes

Here is a different justification for the cave animals being a separate species to the surface fishes.

Abstract              

The most intensively studied cave animal is a characid fish from Mexico, originally described as Anoptichthys jordani. Two other species of Anoptichthys are synonyms of Anoptichthys jordani, and the genus Anoptichthys is an synonym of Astyanax. For many years the cave fishes have been considered to be conspecific with Astyanax fasciatus because the cave fishes are interfertile, under some conditions, with surface dwelling Astyanax fasciatus. In fact the cave and surface fishes are not interfertile under most, natural, conditions and are reproductively isolated by competitive exclusion. Under the tenets of the Biological Species Concept the cave fish are a separate species. Under the Phylogenetic Species Concept they are also separate species as they possess a significant number of unique character states. Since they are good species under these two species concepts they are also good species under the Evolutionary Species Concept. The cave fishes are a separate species Astyanax jordani.

Introduction     

The cave-dwelling characid from Mexico is well known. It has received more study than any other cave animal and is available in pet stores and aquaria the world over. The reasons for this prominence include the facts that it is easy to breed in captivity and interfertile with the sympatric Astyanax fasciatus. These properties allow very detailed studies, and in particular genetical ones, to be made easily. A large number of publications have resulted from these studies (see Reddell, 1981 and Wilkens, 1988 for bibliographies) but there has been great confusion as to the name and status of the animal. The following discussion outlines the problem and poses a definitive solution.

The first population to be discovered, in La Cueva Chica, was described by Hubbs and Innes (1936) as a new genus and species, Anoptichthys jordani. In the following ten years two other populations were discovered in La Cueva de El Pachon and La Cueva de Los Sabinos. Alvarez (1946, 1947) included them in the genus Anoptichthys as Anoptichthys antrobius and Anoptichthys hubbsi respectively.  It is now known that the cave fishes are widespread, Mitchell et al., (1977) document 29 populations (see also Reddell, 1981:238‑243, 325). The recognition of the original three populations as separate species is no longer supportable. The character states used to separate the three (details of the subdivision of the suborbital bones) is likely to be highly variable among the 29 known populations, principally because all have severe modification of the eye area as a result of eye loss during regressive evolution. In their original description of Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs and Innes (1936) recognised that: "Anoptichthys agrees with the genus and subgenus Astyanax in all apparent characters other than those associated with blindness and subterranean life". The epigean Astyanax fasciatus (previously thought to be Astyanax mexicanus, see Miller and Smith (1986) for details) and the hypogean Anoptichthys jordani are not only very similar in general morphology, but they possess the same (or very similar) karyotype (Kirby, Thompson, and Hubbs, 1977) and are interfertile under some conditions. These features, plus the sympatric distribution, provide strong evidence that Anoptichthys jordani is very closely related to, and in all probability, directly evolved from, Astyanax fasciatus. There is therefore no reason for recognising a distinct genus for the cave fishes. (See Greenwood (1976), Roberts and Stewart (1976), and Banister and Bunni (1980) for discussions of this philosophy). Since Alvarez’ species were informally synonymised with Anoptichthys jordani, and since workers dropped the genus Anoptichthys, informally considering it a junior synonym of Astyanax, the cave fishes have been most commonly referred to as the “cave form” of Astyanax mexicanus (earlier works) or A. fasciatus (more recent works). This was done on a tacit, but incorrect, acceptance of one of the tenets of the Biological Species Concept. In this paper I demonstrate that under this concept, and one other, the cave fishes are a different species from the surface fishes. The rationale for the present work is set out by Mayden and Wood (1995:110), “When entities subsumed under one binomial are actually behaving as distinct evolutionary entities, we perform no service to them nor to the biological community by treating them as a single species”.

Considering these animals as separate species is not unprecedented. Reddell (1981: 238-243), Miller and Smith (1986) and Espinosa Perez et al. (1993), in a checklist of Mexican fishes, all called the cave fish Astyanax jordani. Eschmeyer et al. (1998:816) consider that Anoptichthys jordani is valid as Astyanax jordani.

Cave populations and their relationships.

Troglomorphic Astyanax are now known from at least 29 locations in the Sierra de El Abra, Sierra de Guatemala and other areas in San Luis Potosi, Mexico (Fig. 1) (Mitchell et al., 1977). It has been suggested, on genetic grounds, that the populations vary in phylogenetic age, with some populations evolving in caves for longer than others (Wilkens, 1988). In particular, the isolated Micos population is thought to be considerably younger than most of the Sierra de El Abra populations.  Borowsky and Espinasa (1997) provide DNA evidence for three separate evolutionary lines: “Northern” (Sierra de Guatemala and Nicolas Perez), “Southern” (Sierra de El Abra), and “Micos” (Fig. 2). Espinasa and Borowsky (2001) demonstrate that the southern line, which contains the type localities of all three Anoptichthys species,  derives from  common ancestral stock, most likely due to a single colonisation event (Fig. 3). The southern population is therefore probably a single species, separate from the other two lineages. If further work confirms that the other lineages are distinct they will require descriptions and names. The present discussion relates only to the southern populations.

Species concepts

There has recently been much interest in species concepts (reviews and discussion in Kimbel and Martin 1993, Nielsen 1995, Claridge et al. 1997, Kottelat 1997, Mayden 1999 and Wheeler and Meier 2000). Although there is still much disagreement about the “best” concept (see e.g. the debate in Wheeler and Meier 2000) Mayden (1997, 1999) has provided a significant step forward with his division of species concepts into primary and secondary. The primary, non-operational, concept is the Evolutionary Species Concept (ESC; “An evolutionary species is an entity composed of organisms that maintains its identity from other such entities through time and over space and that has its own independent evolutionary fate and historical tendencies.” (Wiley and Mayden 2000a:73)). All other concepts (Mayden (1997) discusses 25) are considered as secondary, operational, concepts. Each of these attempts to discover biodiversity in a different way. Many overlap in their methods and results whereas many others are very different in methods and results. Until this breakthrough, positions on concepts were often very entrenched to one particular concept. Mayden has shown us that each of the secondary concepts is valuable in its own right. Each will discover a portion of the total biodiversity and, used together under the over-arching primary concept, will reveal the maximum information about global biodiversity. Here I use two of the secondary concepts, the Biological Species Concept (BSC) and one version of the Phylogenetic Species Concept (PSC) to show that the cave and surface fishes are separate species.

Biological Species Concept. - “I define biological species as groups of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups.” (Mayr 2000:17).

It is undoubtedly true that the cave fishes and surface fishes can interbreed under laboratory conditions (reference) and that F1, F2 and backcross individuals can be obtained (Wilkens 1988). It is also true that under certain conditions in the wild they can interbreed. The laboratory crosses tell us nothing as they are artificial. Interbreeding in the wild takes place only under very unusual conditions. Of 29 known sites interbreeding has only been observed in nine and of these only in three is it of significant magnitude (Mitchell et al. 1977:72-76). Under the most usual cave conditions of food scarcity  the two forms cannot interbreed (Wilkens, 1988:344-347). Where surface fishes are found with cave fishes the former are so out-competed for food that they starve. In this condition they cannot produce eggs or sperm and so cannot breed. A further factor impedes successful breeding. There is more yolk in cave fish eggs (Huppop and Wilkens, 1991) and homozygous cave fish eggs are have a competitive advantage over heterozygous (cave x surface) eggs (Wilkens 1988:346). In the terms of the BCS this a pre-zygotic isolating mechanism driven by ecology and behaviour. Under unusual cave conditions where there is plenty of food the surface fishes can obtain enough and in La Cueva Chica, which has a large bat roost, the two fishes do interbreed and the Chica fish population is a hybrid one (Mitchell et al. 1977; Romero 1983). Some hybridisation has occurred in La Cueva de El Pachon (Langecker et al. 1991). In Sotano de Yerbaniz, which is food poor,  large numbers of surface fishes enter the cave yet there is a very small number of hybrids (Mitchell et al. 1977:74). It is notable that the probably unrelated Micos fish  “are already reproductively isolated from their epigean neighbours even though they occupy only an intermediate stage with respect to the constructive adaptations developed in phylogenetically old cave forms.” (Wilkens, 1988:346). A prime tenet of the BSC is that groups which are reproductively isolated from one another are separate species. (This is also the prime tenet of the Hennigian Species Concept, see Mayden (1997) and principally Meier and Willmann 2000)). Most cave fishes are isolated from surface fishes by competitive isolation (the competitive-exclusion principle of Mayr 1970:43-44) and therefore the cave and surface fishes are not members of the same species under the BSC. They are not forms a polymorphic species because such species, despite often great morphological variability, breed freely at contact zones (Mayr, 1970:17). They are not subspecies of A. fasciatus because subspecies are not reproductively isolated from other subspecies.

Metrical measures of similarity/difference can also be applied to the BSC where they measure “reproductive isolation and evolutionary independence” (Mayden 1997:399; the “Genetic Species Concept”). Two of these types of measure are available. Avise and Selander (1972) used electrophoresis to study allozyme variation in epigean and hypogean fishes. They use the data to calculate Rogers’ coefficient of genetic similarity (their Table 6). Similarity values for conspecific populations tend to lie in the high 0.80s and 0.90s with genetic similarity among congeneric species  usually much lower, although there is overlap. Avise and Selander (1972) provide values for various congeneric species (0.61, 0.76, 0.77, 0.32, 0.21, 0.50), and various conspecific populations (0.97, 0.98, 0.88, 0.95, 0.97, 0.75, 0.89). Their calculation for the similarity between cave and surface fishes is 0.82. While this is not so low as the congeneric species listed, it is intermediate between these values and the predominant 0.90s of the conspecifics. It is as we would expect of species in the process of separation. This intermediate value does not unequivocally support the stance, often stated (e.g. Wilkens 1988:273, Romero 1983), that cave and surface fish are conspecific. Chakraborty and Nei (1974) calculated Nei’s standard genetic distance (Nei's D parameter) between epigean and hypogean fishes. Values for D of 0.142 (Pachon population) and 0.105 (Sabinos population) fall within the ranges for both subspecies (0.004 ‑ 0.351) and species (0.004 ‑ 3.000) and significantly above that for local races (0.000 ‑ 0.049) as given by Nei (1987:241-242). Neither of these measures provide unequivocal support for the fishes being separate species since they are intermediate between fully separated species and populations within a species. However we are sure that the cave fishes evolved from the surface fishes and these values show us that this process is either still occurring or only recently stopped. They certainly are not supportive of a single, genetically unified species.

Interfertility under some, rather unusual and atypical,  conditions (i.e. absence of total reproductive isolation) has long been used to confine the two type of fishes into one species. The above discussion should finally lay to rest this misguided notion. Wiley and Mayden (2000b:157-158) put the case in context: “As ichthyologists, we know of no recently evolved and closely related species of North American freshwater fish that is 100% reproductively isolated from its sister species. What do we mean by closely related ? We mean species pairs that are young enough and whose biogeographic relationships are such that there is no reason to think that there is an extinct sister species left out of the analysis ... We can produce F1 hybrids if we have a mind to do so.”

Phylogenetic Species Concept. - There are a number of different formulations of the PSC. Mayden (1997) identifies three and two are discussed in Wheeler and Meier (2000). Here I use the definition of Wheeler and Platnick (2000) which is also that of Cracraft (1997), both of which stem from the studies and thoughts of Eldredge and Cracraft (1980) and Nelson and Platnick (1981). This is the PSC1 of Mayden (1997).

“We define species as the smallest aggregation of (sexual) populations or (asexual) lineages diagnosable by a unique combination of character states.” (Wheeler and Platnick 2000:58)

The cave fishes have a significant number of very distinctive and diagnosable character states (Table 1). They are quite clearly a different species from the surface fishes under this version of the PSC.

Evolutionary Species Concept. -

                The cave fishes clearly “maintain their identity” and have their own “independent evolutionary fate” within the caves of central Mexico. They are therefore good Evolutionary Species.

Discussion

There is debate among those studying speciation about the extinction of ancestors at a speciation event. One view (e.g. Meier and Willmannn, 2000) is that ancestors, also called stem species, must become extinct when species evolve from them. The present case provides strong, empirical, evidence that this cannot be the case. The presence of an evolved, or evolving, cave species (Astyanax jordani), over a small part of the range of the species it is evolved, or evolving, from (Astyanax fasciatus), can in no way affect the realness of the species Astyanax fasciatus. It exists as a perfectly good species, totally unaltered over the majority of its range, despite the evolution of a new species from it in a part of Mexico.

Why is the “cave form” not an evolutionarily significant unit (ESU) of Astyanax fasciatus ? There is no consensus on the definition of an ESU (see Cracraft 1997:332-335 for discussion) and Cracraft suggests that “its objective use is virtually precluded” because of this. The prime reason for not recognising the cave fishes an ESU of Astyanax fasciatus is that any group which is sufficiently distinct to be considered as ESU is, prima facie, a distinct species under at least the PSC. There is no reason to subdivide “species” into smaller units if it can be shown that such “species” consists of groups which have an “independent evolutionary fate”. The PSC and ESC show us how to determine species and there is no justification for defining sub- or infra- specific groupings.

Taxonomic consequences

The final taxonomic position is: one species of cave‑dwelling fish Astyanax jordani (Hubbs and Innes, 1936) with one junior objective synonym, Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs and Innes, 1936, and two junior subjective synonyms, Anoptichthys antrobius Alvarez, 1946 and Anoptichthys hubbsi Alvarez, 1947. The genus Anoptichthys Hubbs and Innes, 1936 is a synonym of Astyanax Baird and Girard, 1854.

Conservation implications

There is little doubt that subpopulations exist. Mitchell et al. (1977:76-79) document that animals from eight caves are discreet when subject to a morphometric analysis. The recognition of Astyanax  jordani as separate from Astyanax fasciatus does not preclude the existence of subpopulations (demes) within the jordani clade. Continued genetic studies, or  detailed morphological analysis, will reveal these. Once revealed we need to determine the relevant level of protection.

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Langecker, T.G., H. Wilkens and P. Junge. 1991. Introgressive hybridisation in the Pachon cave population of Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei: Characidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 2:209-212.

Mayden, R. 1997. A hierarchy of species concepts: the denouement in the saga of the species problem, p. 381-424. In: Species: The units of biodiversity. The Systematics Assoc. Spec. Vol. Ser. 54. Claridge, M.F., H.A. Dawah and M.R. Wilson (eds.).

----------. 1999. Consilience and a hierarchy of species concepts: Advances toward closure on the species puzzle. J. Nematol. 31:95-116.

----------, and R.M. Wood. 1995. Systematics, species concepts and the evolutionary significant unit in biodiversity and conservation biology. Amer. Fish. Soc. Symp. 17:58-113.

Mayr, E. 1970. Populations, species and evolution. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, USA.

----------. 2000. The Biological Species Concept, p. 17-29. In: Species concepts and phylogenetic theory: A debate. Columbia University Press, New York, USA. Wheeler, Q.D. and R. Meier (eds.).

Meier, R. and R. Willmannn. 2000. The Hennigian species concept, p. 30-43. In: Species concepts and phylogenetic theory: A debate. Columbia University Press, New York, USA. Wheeler, Q.D. and R. Meier (eds.).

Miller, R.R. and M.L. Smith. 1986. Origin and geography of the fishes of central Mexico, p. 487-517. In: The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. Hocutt, H.C. and E.O. Wiley (eds.).

Mitchell, R.W., W.H. Russell and W.R. Elliott. 1977. Mexican eyeless characin fishes, genus Astyanax: Environment, distribution and evolution. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 12:1-89.

Nielsen, J.L. 1995. Evolution and the aquatic ecosystem: defining unique units in population conservation. Amer. Fish. Soc. Symp. 17, Bethesda, Maryland.

Nei, M. 1987. Molecular evolutionary genetics. Columbia University Press, New York.

Nelson G. and N.I. Platnick 1981. Systematics and biogeography: cladistics and vicariance. Columbia University Press, New York.

Parzefall, J. 1983. Field observations in epigean and cave populations of the Mexican characid Astyanax mexicanus (Pisces, Characidae). Mem. Biospeol. 10:171-176.

----------. 1985. On the heredity of behaviour patterns in cave animals and their epigean relatives. Bull. Nat. Spel. Soc. 47:128-135.

Reddell, J.R. 1981. A review of the cavernicole fauna of Mexico, Guatemala and Belize. Texas Mem. Mus. Bull. 27:1-327.

Roberts, T.R.and D.J. Stewart. 1976. An ecological and systematic survey of fishes in the rapids of the lower Zaire or Congo river. Bull. Mus. Comp.  Zool., Harvard 147:239-317.

Romero, A. 1983. Introgressive hybridisation in the Astyanax fasciatus (Pisces: Characidae) population at La Cueva Chica. Nat. Speleol. Soc. Bull. 45:81-85.

Rose, F.L. and R.W. Mitchell. 1982. Comparative lipid values of epigean and cave-adapted Astyanax. Southwest. Nat. 27:357-358.

Schemmel, C. 1980. Studies on the genetics of feeding behaviour in the cave fish Astyanax mexicanus f. anoptichthys. An example of apparent monofactorial inheritance by polygenes. Z. Tierpsycol. 53:9-22.

Teyke, T. 1990. Morphological differences in neuromasts of the blind cave fish Astyanax hubbsi and the sighted river fish Astyanax mexicanus. Brain, Behav. Evol. 35:23-30.

Wheeler, Q.D. and R. Meier. 2000. Species concepts and phylogenetic theory: A debate. Columbia University Press, New York, USA.

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Wiley, E.O. and R.L. Mayden 2000a. The Evolutionary Species Concept, p. 70-89. In: Species concepts and phylogenetic theory: A debate. Columbia University Press, New York, USA. Wheeler, Q.D. and R. Meier (eds.).

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Wilkens, H. 1988. Evolution and genetics of epigean and cave Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Pisces). Support for the neutral mutation theory. Evol. Biol. 23:271-367.

 

Table 1. Morphological, behavioural, physiological and genetic differences between the surface (epigean) and cave (hypogean) fishes

Character   Character state      
  Epigean   Hypogean Populations References
Morphology          
Taste buds mouth and lips only   whole head Pa, Pi, S, Y Schemmel 1980
Neuromast area 50x30x10-6m   80x50x10-6m CS Teyke 1990
Cupula length 42x10-6m   100-300x10-6m CS Teyke 1990
Egg size ~1mm dia.   #1.1mm dia. Pa, Pi, Y Huppop and Wilkens 1991
Scales present   present but smaller Pa Wilkens 1988
Eyes present   degenerated Pa, S, C Wilkens 1988
Melanin pigment present   reduced Pa, Pi, S, Y Wilkens 1988
Behaviour          
Fright reaction present   reduced C, Pa, Pi Fricke 1987
Feeding 90o to subsrate   45o to subsrate Pa, Pi, S, Y Schemmel 1980
Food finding 20% efficient   80% efficient Pa Huppop 1987
Agressive present   reduced Pa, Mi Parzefall 1985
Schooling present   absent Pi Parzefall 1983
Circadian rhythm normal   much modified Pa Erckens and Martin 1982
Physiology          
Fat storage 9% of fresh body mas   37% of fresh body mass Pa Huppop 1988
Lipids 0.32+/-0.14*   1.26+/-0.27* Y Rose and Mitchell 1982
Genetics          
Allozyme Es-2d absent   present C, Pa, S Avise and Selander 1982

* mean lipid to lean dry weight ratio

+ C = La Cueva Chica. CS = Commercial stock. Probably derived from the Chica population. Pa = La Cueva de El Pachon. Pi = El Sotano de Las Piedras. S = La Cueva de los Sabinos. Y = El Sotano de Yerbaniz. (All are from the “southern” population). Mi = La Cueva del Rio Subterraneo (unrelated Micos population)                                                                                                                                                                                                            

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 

 

Conservation Status

[NE]

R (IUCN, 1990), VU A1ac+2c,B1+2c,D2 (IUCN, 1996, 2000). These criteria indicate: (A1ac+2c) that the population has been, or will be, reduced by 20% over the past 10 years (and/or over the next 10 years) as a result of habitat loss or degeneration, (B1+2c) that the area of occupancy is less than 2000 km2 and a severely fragmented population with a decline in extent or quality of habitat, (D2) that the population exists in 5 or less sites. This latter criterion is not valid as the species is known from 31 sites (Mitchell, Russell and Elliott 1977, Elliott 2018). Special Concern (Contreras-Balderas, Almada-Villela, Lozano-Vilano and Garcia-Ramirez 2003).

Museum Holdings

Anoptichthys jordani: BMNH 1973.9.10:20

Anoptichthys hubbsi: BMNH 1951.12.3:14‑17 (Paratypes)

Internet Resources

The 6th Annual Cavefish Meeting will be held March 17th-20th 2019 at Hotel Mision, in Queretaro, Mexico. Horst Wikens (University of Hamburg) and Craig Albertson (University of Massachusetts) will be Keynote Speakers

The Astyanax research community

Astyanax genome 1

Astyanax genome 2

Astyanax transcriptome

Astyanax developmental gene expresion

Astyanax gene annotations

Association for Mexican Cave Studies

How and why does the cave fish lose its eyes?

Bill Elliott's Astyanax web site

Bill Elliott's publications

Bill Elliott's chapter 1 in "Biology and evolution of the Mexican cavefish" (Keene et al. 2016)

Bill Elliott's chapter 3 in "Biology and evolution of the Mexican cavefish" (Keen et al. 2016)

Key References

This species has been studied in much greater detail than any other subterranean fish, and probably any other subterranean organism. Consequently the literature is very large. Anyone working with this species, or taking a serious interest in it, will need to follow the primary literature which is published across a very wide array of primary scientific journals. Those people starting out in research on Astyanax jordani, and those with a passing interest, will have to read and fully digest all of the major review publications, outlined below, all of which are required initial reading. Only by being fully familiar with these works can it be possible to move onto the primary literature with confidence that all the necessary background is firmly embedded in memory. In chronological order these are:

Mitchell, Russell and Elliott (1977) - Mexican eyeless characin fishes, genus Astyanax: Environment,distribution and evolution

Wilkens (1988) - Evolution and genetics of epigean and cave Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Pisces): support for the neutral mutation theory

Wilkens (1992) - Neutral mutations and evolutionary progress

Jeffery (2001) - Cavefish as a model system in evolutionary developmental biology

Fish (2004) - Karst hydrology of the Sierra de El Abra [Originally a thesis at McMaster University, Fish (1977)]

Wilkens (2005) - Fish

Protas et al. (2007) - Regressive evolution in the Mexican cave tetra, Astyanax mexicanus

Jeffery (2008) - Emerging model systems in evo-devo: cavefish and microevolution of development

Jeffery (2009) - Regresive evolution in Astyanax cavefish

Jeffery (2009) - Evolution and development in the cavefish Astyanax

Borowsky (2010) - The evolutionary genetics of cave fishes: Convergence, adaptation and plieotropy

Jeffery and Strickler (2010) - Development as an evolutionary process in Astyanax cavefish

Wilkens (2010) - Genes, modules and the evolution of cave fish

Juan, Guzik, Jaume and Cooper (2010) - Evolution in caves: Darwin’s ‘wrecks of ancient life’ in the molecular era

Yamamota and Jeffery (2011) - Blind cavefish

Kish, Bohnsack, Gallina, Kasprick and Kahana (2011) - The eye as an organizer of craniofacial development

Jeffery (2012) - Astyanax mexicanus: A model organism for evolution and adaptation

Wilkens (2012) - Neutral mutations

Trontelj (2012) - Natural selection

Gross (2012) - The complex origin of Astyanax cavefish

Protas and Jeffery (2012) - Evolution and development in cave animals: from fish to crustaceans

Niemiller and Soares (2015) - Cave environments 

Keene, Yoshizawa and McGaugh (2016) - Biology and evolution of the Mexican cavefish

Casane and Retaux 2016 - Evolutionary genetics of the cavefish Astyanax mexicanus

Foulkes, Whitmore, Vallone and Bertolucci 2016 - Studying the evolution of the vertebrate circadian clock: The power of fish as comparative models

Wilkens and Strecker (2017) - Evolution in the dark: Darwin's loss without selection

Elliott (2018) - The Astyanax caves of Mexico: Cavefishes of San Luís Potosí, Tamaulipas, and Guerrero

Borowsky (2018) - Primer. Cavefish

Gore, Jeffery, Retaux and Rohner (2018) - Cavefish development

Torres-Paz, Hyacinthe, Pierre and Retaux (2018) - Towards an integrated approach to understand Mexican cavefish evolution

Rohner (2018) - Out of the dark. Cavefish are entering biomedical research

Also, not a review, McGaugh et al. (2014) - The cavefish genome reveals candidate genes for eye loss

Also useful, though mostly superceeded by Elliott (2018), are Russell and Raines (1967) and Morris (1989).

Selected bibliography

Hubbs, C.L. and Innes, W.T. Journal Article 1936 The first known blind fish of the family Characidae: A new genus from Mexico
Bridges, W. Journal Article 1940 The blind fish of La Cueva Chica
Gresser, E. B. and Breder, C. M. Journal Article 1940 The histology of the eye of the cave characin, Anoptichthys
Breder, C. M. and Gresser, E. B. Journal Article 1941 Behaviour of Mexican cave characins in reference to light and cave entry
Breder, C. M. and Gresser, E. B. Journal Article 1941 Correlations between structural eye defects and behaviour in the Mexican blind characin
Breder, C. M. and Gresser, E. B. Journal Article 1941 Further studies on the light sensitivity and behaviour of the Mexican blind characins
Breder, C. M. Journal Article 1942 Descriptive ecology of La Cueva Chica, with especial reference to the blind fish, Anoptichthys
Breder, C. M. Journal Article 1943 Apparent changes in phenotypic ratios of the characins at the type locality of Anptichthys jordani Hubbs and Innes
Breder, C. M. Journal Article 1943 Problems in the behaviour and evolution of a species of blind cave fish
Osorio Tafall, B. F. Journal Article 1943 Observaciones sobra la fauna aquatica de las Cuevas de la region de Valles, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)
Breder, C. M. Journal Article 1944 Ocular anatomy and light sensitivity studies on the blind fish Cueva de Los Sabinos, Mexico
Alvarez, J. Journal Article 1946 Revision del genero Anoptichthys con descripcion de una especie nueva (Pisc., Characidae)
Schlagel, S. R. and Breder, C. M. Journal Article 1947 A study of the oxygen consumption of blind and eyed cave characins in light and in darkness
Breder, C. M. and Rasquin, P. Journal Article 1947 Comparative studies on the light sensitivity of blind characins from a series of Mexican caves
Breder, C. M. and Rasquin, P. Journal Article 1947 Evidence for the lack of a growth principle in the optic cyst of the Mexican cave fish
Alvarez, J. Journal Article 1947 Descripcion de Anoptichthys hubbsi caracindo ciego de la Cueva de Los Sabinos, S.L.P
Rasquin, P. Journal Article 1949 The influence of light and darkness on thyroid and pituitary activity of the characin Astyanax mexicanus and its cave derivatives
Luling, K. H. Journal Article 1953 Die Heimat und die Entdeckng unseres Blindfisches Anoptichthys jordani
Luling, K. H. Journal Article 1953 Uber das Sehen jugendlicher Anptichthys jordani (Hubbs und Innes)
Luling, K. H. Journal Article 1953 Uber die fortschreitende Augendegenerations des Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs und Innes (Characidae)
Stefanelli, A. Journal Article 1954 It tetto ottico di Pesci ciechi cavernicoli nei riguardi del differenziamento specifico dei neuroni
Stefanelli, A. Journal Article 1954 The differentiation of optic lobe neurones in a blind cave teleost
Rasquin, P. and Rosenbloom, L. Journal Article 1954 Endocrine imbalance and tissue hyperplasia in teleosts maintained in darkness
Luling, K. H. Journal Article 1954 Untersuchungen am Blindfisch Anoptichtys jordani Hubbs und Innes (Characidae). I Einige Beobachtungen uber das Verhalten des Blindfisches Anoptichthys jordani beim Laichen
Luling, K. H. Journal Article 1954 Untersuchungen am Blindfisch Anoptichtys jordani Hubbs und Innes (Characidae). II Beobachtungen und Experimente an Anoptichthys jordani zur Prufung der Einstellung zum Futter, zumlicht und zur Wassertubulenze
Thines, G. Journal Article 1954 Etude comparative de la photosensibilite des poissons aveugles Caecobarbus geertsii Blgr et Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs et Innes
Luling, K. H. Journal Article 1955 Untersuchungen am Blindfische Anoptichthys jordani, Hubbs und Innes (Characidae). III Vergleichende anatomisch-histologische studien an den Augen des Anoptichthys jordani
Luling, K. H. Journal Article 1955 Zur Augenreduktion des aus Mexikanischen Hohlen stammenden blinden Salmlers Anoptichthys jordani (Hubbs und Innes)
Sadoglu, P. Journal Article 1956 A preliminary report on the genetics of the Mexican cave characin
Thines, G. and Kahling, J. Journal Article 1957 Untersuchungen uber die Farbempfindlichkeit des Hohlenfisches Anoptichthys jordani (Characidae)
Sadoglu, P. Journal Article 1957 A Mendelian gene for albinism in natural cave fish
Sadoglu, P. Journal Article 1957 Mendelian inheritance in the hybrids between the Mexican blind cave fishes and their overground ancestors
Cahn, P. H. Journal Article 1958 Comparative optic development in Astyanax mexicanus and in two of its blind cave derivatives
Grobbel, G. and Hahn, G. Journal Article 1958 Morphologie und Histologie der Seitenorgane des augenlosen Hohlenfisches Anoptichthys jordani im Vergleich zu anderen Teleosteern
Kahling, J. Journal Article 1961 Untersuchungen uber den Lichtsinn und dessen Lokalisation bei dem Hohlenfisch Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs und Innes (Characidae)
Luling, K. H. Journal Article 1962 Untersuchungen am Blindfisch Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs und Innes (Characidae). IV Bemerkungen zur Okologie und Tiergeographie
Burgers, A. C. J., Bennink, P. J. H. and van Oordt, G. J. Journal Article 1963 Investigations into the regulation of the pigmentary system in the blind Mexican cave fish Anoptichthys jordani
Franck, A. Journal Article 1964 Vergleichende Untersuchungen am Hohlebfisch Anoptichthys antrobius und seinem oberirdischen Vorfahren Astyanax mexicanus
Thines, G., Wolff-Van Ermengem, F., Boucquey, C. and Soffie, M. Journal Article 1965 Etude comparative de l'activite du poisson cavernicole Anoptichthys antrobius Alvarez, et de son ancetre epige Astyanax mexicanus (Filippi)
Boucquey, C., Thines, G. and Van Der Borght, C. Book Section 1965 Etude compartive de la capacite photopathique et de l'activite chex les poisson cavenicole Anoptichthys antrobius chez la forme epigee ancestrale Astyanax mexicanus,et chez les hybrides F1 (Astyanax x Anoptichthys) et F2
Peters, N. and Peters, G. Journal Article 1966 Das Auge zweier Hohlenformen von Astyanax mexicanus Filippi (Characidae, Pisces)
Thines, G., Soffie, M. and Vandenbussche, E. Journal Article 1966 Analyse du comportement alimentaire du poisson cavernicole aveugle Anoptichthys Gen. et d'hybrides F1 (Astyanax x Anoptichthys) et F2
Carmignani, M. P. A. Journal Article 1966 Distributuzione dei follicoli tiroidei lungo la regione branchiale nel teleosteo cieco Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs e Innes
Reed, M. Journal Article 1966 Raising and breeding the blind cave characin
Cavicchioli, G. and Guarnieri, P. Journal Article 1966 Nota preliminari su gli organi di senso cutanei della testa e del corpo di un pesce cavernicolo Anoptichthys jordani (Cypriniformes, Characidae)
Pfeiffer, W. Journal Article 1967 Die Korrelation von Augengrosse und Mittelherngrosse bei Hybriden aus Astyanax x Aoptichthys (Characidae, Pisces)
Pfeiffer, W. Journal Article 1967 Die Korrelation von Korperlange, Augen-, Linsen, und Papillengrosse bei Hybriden aus Astyanax, Anoptichthys (Characidae, Pisces)
Popper, A. N. and Tavolga, W. N. Journal Article 1967 Hearing thresholds in the Mexican blind cavefish
Sadoglu, P. Journal Article 1967 The selective value of eye and pigment loss in Mexican cave fish
Walters, V. and Liu, R. K. Book Section 1967 Hydrodynamics of navigation by fishes in terms of the mucus-water "interface"
Schemmel, C. Journal Article 1967 Vergleichende Untersuchungen an den Hautsinnesorganen ober- und unterirdisch lebender Astyanax-Formen. Ein Beitrag zur evolution der Cavernicolen
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1968 Beitrag zur Degeneration des Auges bei Cavernicolen, Genzahl und Manifestationsart (Untersuchungen an mexikanischen Hohlenfischen)
Carmignani, M. P. A. Journal Article 1968 Morfologia ed attivita neurosecretoria del nucleo proottico e del nucleo paraipofisario nel teleosteo cieco Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs e Innes
Mattheij, J. A. Journal Article 1968 The cell types in the adenohypophysis of the blind Maexican cave fish Anoptichthys jordani (Hubbs and Innes)
Mattheij, J. A. Journal Article 1968 The ACTH cells in the adenohypophysis of the Mexican cave fish Anoptichthys jordani, as identified by metopirone (SU 4885) treatment
Mattheij, J. A. Journal Article 1969 The thyrotropin secreting basophils in the adenohypophysis of Anoptichthys jordani
Mattheij, J. A. and Sprangers, J. A. P. Journal Article 1969 The site of prolactin secretion in the adenohypophysis of the stenohaline teleost Anoptichthys jordani and the effects of this hormone on mucous cells
Sadoglu, P. and McKee, A. Journal Article 1969 A second gene that affects eye and body colour in Mexican blind cave fish
Weiss, B. A. Journal Article 1969 Sonic sensitivity of blind cave fish (Anoptichthys jordani)
Mattheij, J. A. Journal Article 1970 The function of the basophilic cells in the mesoadenohypophysis of the blind cave fish, Anoptichthys jordani
Mattheij, J. A. Journal Article 1970 The gonadotrophic cells in the adenohypophysis of the blind Mexican cave fish Anoptichthys jordani
Popper, A. N. Journal Article 1970 Auditory capacities of the Mexican blind cave fish (Astyanax jordani) and its eyed ancestor (Astyanax mexicanus)
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1970 Beitrag zur Degeneration des Auges bei Cavernicolen. Genzhal und Manifestationsart, Untersuchungen an Mexikanischen Hohlenfischen
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1970 Beitrage zur Degenerations des Melaninpigments bei cavernicolen Sippen des Astyanax mexicanus (Filippi) (Characidae, Pisces)
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1970 Der Bau des Auges cavernicolen Sippen von Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Pisces). Beitrag zur Problematik degenerativer Evolutionsprozesse
Gertychowa, R. Journal Article 1970 Studies on the ethology and space orientation of the blind cave fish Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs et Innes 1936 (Characidae)
Gertychowa, R. Journal Article 1970 The blind fish of Cueva Chica
Weiss, B. and Martini, J. Journal Article 1970 Lateral line sensitivity in the blind cave fish (Anoptichthys jordani)
Whitt, G. S. and Maeda, F. S. Journal Article 1970 Lactate dehydrogenase gene function in the blind cave fish, Anoptichthys jordani, and other characins
Wiley, S. and Mitchell, R. W. Book Section 1971 A bibliography of the Mexican eyeless characib fishes of the genus Astyanax
Popper, A. N. Journal Article 1971 The morphology of the Weberian ossicles of two species of the genus Astyanax
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1971 Genetic interpretation of regressive evolutionary processes: Studies on hybrid eyes of two Astyanax cave populations (Characidae, Pisces)
Zaccone, G. Journal Article 1971 Histomorphological and histochemical study of the ultimobranchial body of the blind teleost Anoptichthys jordani
Gertychowa, R. Journal Article 1971 Heliotaktyzm mlodych rybek jaskiniowych Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs et Innes
Wiley, S. and Mitchell, R. W. Book 1971 A bibliography of the Mexican eyeless characin fishes of the genus Astyanax. Preliminary compilation
Thines, G. and Wissocq, N. Journal Article 1972 Etude comparee du comportement alimentaire de deux poissons cavenicoles (Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs et Innes et Ceacobarbus geertsii Blgr)
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1972 Uber das phylogenetische Alter von Hohlentieren
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1972 Uber Praadaptionen fur das Holhlenleben, untersucht am Laichverhalten ober- und unterirdischer Populationen des Astyanax mexicanus (Pisces)
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1972 Zur phylogenetischen Ruckbildung des Auges Cavernicler. Untersuchungen an Anoptichthys jordani (= Astyanax mexicanus), Characidae, Pisces
Zaccone, G. Journal Article 1972 Comparative histochemical investigations on the mucous cells of the branchial epithelium of Mugil cephalus and Anoptichthys jordani
Wilkens, H. and Burns, R. J. Journal Article 1972 A new Anoptichthys cave population (Characidae, Pisces)
Avise, J. C. and Selander, R. K. Journal Article 1972 Evolutionary genetics of cave-dwelling fishes of the genus Astyanax
Thines, G. and LeGrain, J. M. Journal Article 1973 Effets de la substance d'alarme sur le comportement des poissons cavernicoles Anoptichthys jordani (Characidae) et Caecobarbus geertsii (Cyprinidae)
Yasuda, K. Journal Article 1973 Comparative studies on the swimming behaviour of the blind cave fish and the goldfish
Mitchell, R. W. Book Section 1973 Introgression between the Mexican eyeless characin fishes and their epigean ancestors
Voneida, T. J. Journal Article 1973 A comparative study of retino-tectal projections in the blind cave characin, Astyanax hubbsi, and its sighted ancestor Astyanax mexicanus
Durand, J. P. Journal Article 1973 Aspects ultrastructuraux des mechanismes de la rudimentation retinienne chez l'Anoptichthys adulte forme cavernicole aveugle de l'Astyanax mexicanus (Caracidae, Pisces)
Zeitlin, S. M. Journal Article 1973 Hormonal induction of ovulation and spawning in the blind cave fish, Anoptichthys jordani with the use of human chorionic gonadotropin
Schemmel, C. Journal Article 1973 Les organes sensoriels cutanes du genre Astyanax (Pisces, Characidae) chez les formes occupant des biotopes souterraines
Zeitlin, S. M. and McDevitt, D. S. Journal Article 1973 Flourescent antibody study of the developing lens of the blind cave fish
Sligar, C. Journal Article 1974 An investigation of tectal efferents in the blind cave fish, A. hubbsi
Chakraborty, R. and Nei, M. Journal Article 1974 Dynamics of gene differentiation between incompletely isolated populations of unequal size
Schemmel, C. Journal Article 1974 Ist die cavernicole Micos-population von Astyanax mexicanus (Characidae, Pisces) hybriden ursprungs ?
Schemmel, C. Journal Article 1974 Genetische Untersuchungen zur Evolution des Geschmacksapparates bei cavernicolen Fischen
Sadoglu, P. Book Section 1975 Genetic paths leading to blindness in Astyanax mexicanus
Omura, Y. Journal Article 1975 Influence of light and darkness on the ultrastructure of the pineal organ in the blind cave fish, Astyanax mexicanus
Peters, N., Scholl, A. and Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1975 Der Micos-Fisch, Hohlenfisch in statu nascendi oder Bastard ?Ein Beitrag zur Evolution der Hohlentiere
Herwig, H. J. Journal Article 1976 Ultrastructural investigations on the pineal organ of a cave fish, Anoptichthys jordani and its ancestor, Astyanax mexicanus
Erckens, W. and Weber, F. Journal Article 1976 Rudiments of an ability for time measurement in the cavernicolous fish Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs and Innes (Pisces, Characidae)
Herwig, H. J. Journal Article 1976 Comparative ultrastructural investigations on the pineal organ of the blind cave fish, Anoptichthys jordani and its ancestor, the eyed rive fish, Astyanax mexicanus
Sligar, C. and Voneida, T. J. Journal Article 1976 Tectal efferents in the blind cave fish Asyanax hubbsi
Voneida, T. J. and Sligar, C. Journal Article 1976 A comparative neuroanatomic study of retinal projections in two fishes: Astyanax hubbsi (the blind cave fish) and Astyanax mexicanus
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1976 Genetic and phenotypic variability in cave animals. Studies on phylogenetically young cave populations of Astyanax mexicanus (Filippi) (Characidae, Pisces)
Durand, J. P. Journal Article 1976 Rudimentation des yeux chez les poissons et urodeles souterraines
Kirby, R. F., Thompson, K. W. and Hubbs, C. Journal Article 1977 Karyotypic similarities between the Mexican and blind tetras
Yew, D. T. and Yoshihara, H. M. Journal Article 1977 An ultrastructural study of the retina of the blind cave fish Astyanax hubbusi (sic)
Mitchell, R. W., Russell, W. H. and Elliott, W. R. Journal Article 1977 Mexican eyeless characin fishes, genus Astyanax: Environment,distribution and evolution
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1977 Die Rudimenation des Rumpfkanals bei kavernicolen Populationen des Astyanax (Characidae, Pisces)
Zaccone, G. Journal Article 1977 Histology, innervation, and histochemistry of the UB [Ultimobranchial] gland in the Mexican cave fish Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs et Innes (Teleostei, Characidae)
Thines, G. and Weyers, M. Journal Article 1978 Responses locomotrices du poisson cavernicole Astyanax jordani (Pisces, Characidae) a des signaux periodiques et aperiodiques de lumiere et de temperature
Durand, J. P. Journal Article 1978 Phenomenes de convergences tissulaires et cytologiques, lies aux processus degeneratifs qui affectent l'oeil chez deux teleoteens cavericoles Asytyanax (Anoptichthys) mexicanus (Characidae) et Lucifuga (Stygicola) dentatus (Ophidiidae)
Wilkens, H., Peters, H. and Schemmel, C. Journal Article 1979 Gesetzmassigkeiten der regressiven Evolution
Woodhead, A. D. and Achey, P. M. Journal Article 1979 Photoreactivating enzyme in the blind cave fish, Anoptichthys jordani
Sadoglu, P. Journal Article 1979 A breeding method for blind Astyanax mexicanus based on annual spawning patterns
Durand, J. P. Journal Article 1979 Aspects ultrastructuraux des mechanismes de la rudimentation retinienne chez l'Anoptichthys adult, forme cavernicole aveugle de l'Astyanax mexicanus (Characidae, Pisces)
Quinn, T. P. Journal Article 1980 Locomotor responses of juvenile blind cavefish, Astyanax jordani, to the odors of conspecifics
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1980 Prinzipien der Manifestation polygener Systeme
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1980 Zur Problematik der Rudimentation, untersucht an der Ontogenie des Auges von Hohlenfischen (Astyanax mexicanus)
Weissert, R. Book Section 1980 Formunterscheidung durch einer blinden Hohlenfisch (Anoptichthys jordani, Hubbs et Innes)
Schemmel, C. Journal Article 1980 Studies on the genetics of feeding behaviour in the cave fish Astyanax mexicanus f. Anoptichthys. An example of apparent monofactorial inheritance by polygenes
Herwig, H. J. Thesis 1981 The pineal organ. An ultrastructural and biochemical study on the pineal organ of Hemigrammus caudovittatus and other closely related characid fish with special reference to the Mexican blind cave fish Astyanax mexicanus
Campenhausen, C., Riess, I. and Weissert, R. Journal Article 1981 Detection of stationary objects by blind cave fish Anoptichthys jordani (Characidae)
Reddell, J. R. Book 1981 A review of the cavernicole fauna of Mexico, Guatemala and Belize
Weissert, R. and Campenhausen, C. Journal Article 1981 Discrimination between stationary objects by the blind cave fish Anoptichthys jordani (Characidae)
Erckens, W. and Martin, W. Journal Article 1982 Exogenous and endogenous control of swimming activity in Astyanax mexicanus (Characidae, Pisces) by direct light response and by a circadian oscillator. II Features of time controled behaviour of a cave population and their comparison to an ancestral epig
Rose, F. L. and Mitchell, R. W. Journal Article 1982 Comparative lipid values of epigean and cave adapted Astyanax
Tabata, M. Journal Article 1982 Persistence of pineal photosensory function in blind cave fish, Astyanax mexicanus
Lamprecht, G. and Weber, F. Book Section 1982 A test for the biological significance of circadian clocks: Evolutionary regression of the time measuring ability in cavernicolous animals
Jankowska, M. and Thines, G. Journal Article 1982 Etude comparative de la densite de groupes de poissons cavernicoles et epigee (Characidae, Cyprinidae, Clariidae)
Erckens, W. and Martin, W. Journal Article 1982 Exogenous and endogenous control of swimming activity in Astyanax mexicanus (Characidae, Pisces) by direct light response and by circadian oscillator. I Analyses of the time control system of an epigean river population
Parzefall, J. Journal Article 1983 Field observations in epigean and cave populations of the Mexican characid Astyanax mexcanus (Pisces, Characidae)
Romero, A. Journal Article 1983 Introgressive hybridisation in the Astyanax fasciatus (Pisces, Characidae) population at La Cueva Chica
Zilles, K., Tillmann, B. and Bennemann, R. Journal Article 1983 The development of the eye in Astyanax mexicanus (Characidae,Pisces), its blind cave derivative, Anoptichthys jordani (Characidae, Pisces, and their crossbreeds. A scanning and transmission electron microscopic study
Voneida, T. J. and Fish, S. E. Journal Article 1984 Central nervous system changes related to the reduction of visual inputs in a naturally blind fish (Astyanax hubbsi)
Schuppa, M. Thesis 1984 Morphometrische und meristische Untersuchungen an verschiedenen Astyanax-populationen (Characidae) Mexicos
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1984 Zur Evolution von Polygensystemen, untersucht an ober- unt unterirdischen Populationen des Astyanax mexicanus (Characidae, Pisces)
Romero, A. Thesis 1984 Responses to light in cave and surface populations of Astyanax fasciatus (Pisces, Characidae): An evolutionary interpretation
Romero, A. Journal Article 1984 Behaviour in an 'intermediate' population of the subterranean dwelling characid Astyanax fasciatus
Romero, A. Journal Article 1985 Ontogenetic change in phototactic responses of surface and cave populations of Astyanax fasciatus (Pisces, Characidae)
Burchards, H., Dolle, A. and Parzefall, J. Journal Article 1985 The aggressive behaviour of an epigean population of Astyanax mexicanus (Characidae, Pisces) and some observations of three subterranean popukations
Teyke, T. Journal Article 1985 Collision with and avoidance of obstacles by blind cave fish Anoptichthys jordani (Characidae)
Lamprecht, G. and Weber, F. Journal Article 1985 Time-keeping mechanisms and their ecological significance in cavernicolous animals
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1985 The evolution of polygenic systems, studies on epigean and cave poplations of Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Pisces)
Romero, A. Journal Article 1986 Charles Breder and the Mexican blind cave Characid
De Fraipont, M. and Thines, G. Journal Article 1986 Responses of the cave fish Astyanax mexicanus (Anoptichthys antrobius) to the odor of know or unknown conspecifics
De Fraipont, M. and Thines, G. Journal Article 1986 La detection chimique de l'odeur des predaeurs chex Astyanax mexixanus (formes cavernicoles et epigees)
Huppop, K. Journal Article 1986 Oxygen consumption of Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Pisces): a comparison of epigean and hypogean populations
Parzefall, J. Book Section 1986 Behavioural ecology of cave-dwelling fishes
De Fraipont, M. Journal Article 1986 La detection chimique de l'odeur des congeneres chex Astyanax mexicanus (forme cavernicole). Responses observees pour des cencentrations egales etablies a partir de groupes de densites differentes
Wilkens, H. and Huppop, K. Journal Article 1986 Sympatric speciation in cave fishes ? Studies on a mixed population of epi- and hypogean Astyanax (Characidae, Pisces)
Hassan, E. S. Journal Article 1986 On the discrimination of spatial intervals by the blind cave fish Anoptichthys jordani
Fraipont, M. Journal Article 1986 La detection chimique chez Astyanax mexicanus (forme cavernicole) en fonction de la densite des groupes
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1986 The evolution of polygenic systems. Studies on epigean and cave populations of Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Pisces)
De Fraipont, M. Journal Article 1987 La detection chimique chez Astyanax mexicanus (Teleostei, Characidae) (forme cavernicole) en fonction de la densite des groupes
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1987 Genetic analysis of evolutionary processes
Huppop, K. Journal Article 1987 Food finding ability in cave fish (Astyanax fasciatus)
De Fraipont, M. Journal Article 1987 La detection chimique chez Astyanax mexicanus (forme cavernicole, Pisces, Characidae), en fonction du sexe
De Fraipont, M. Journal Article 1988 The responses of Astyanax mexicanus (Pisces, Characidae, epigean form) to chemical traces of conspecific groups of varying densities
Fricke, D. Journal Article 1988 Reaction to alarm substance in cave populations of Astyanax mexicanus (Characidae, Pisces)
Huppop, K. Thesis 1988 Phanomene und Bedeutung der Energieersparnis bei dem Hohlenfisch Astynax fasciatus
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1988 Evolution and genetics of epigean and cave Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Pisces): support for the neutral mutation theory
Teyke, T. Journal Article 1988 Flow field, swimming velocity and boundary layers: parameters which affect the stimulus for the lateral line organ in blind fish
Fack, H. and Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1989 Eye reduction in hybrids and a naturally viable cave form Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Pisces)
Fricke, D. and Parzefall, J. Journal Article 1989 Alarm reaction, aggresion and scholing in cave and river populations of Astyanax fasciatus (Pisces, Characidae) and their hybrids
Huppop, K. Journal Article 1989 Genetic analysis of oxygen consumption in cave and surface fish of Astyanax fasciatus (Characidea, Pisces): Further support for the neutral mutation theory
Teyke, T. Journal Article 1989 Learning and remembering the environment in the blind cave fish Anoptichthys jordani
Langecker, T. G. Journal Article 1989 Studies of the light reaction of epigean and cave populations of Astyanax fasciatus (Characidea, Pisces)
Hassan, E. S. Book Section 1989 Hydrodynamic imaging of the surroundings by the lateral line of the blind cave fish Anoptichthys jordani
Peters, N., Schmidt, W. and Fricke, D. Journal Article 1990 Die Feinstruktur der Kolbenzellen (Schreckstoffzellen) in der Epidermis von Astyanax mexicanus Fillippi 1853 (Characidae, Pisces) und seinen Hohlen derivaten "Anoptichthys"
Klimpel, B. and Parzefall, J. Journal Article 1990 Comparative studies of predatory behaviour in cave and river populations of Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Pisces)
Yokoyama, R. and Yokoyama, S. Journal Article 1990 Convergent evolution of the red- and green-like visual pigment genes in fish Astyanax fasciatus and human
Yokoyama, R and Yokoyama, S Journal Article 1990 Isolation, DNA sequence and evolution of a color visual pigment gene of the blind cavefish Astyanax fasciatus
Abdel-Latif, H., Hassan, E. S. and von Campenhausen, C. Journal Article 1990 Sensory performance of blind Mexican cave fish after destruction of the canal neuromasts
Teyke, T. Journal Article 1990 Morphological differences in neuromasts of the blind cave fish Asyanax hubbsi and the sighted river fish Astyanax mexicanus
Langecker, T. G. Thesis 1990 Das Licht als Evolutionsfaktor bei Hohlentieren- untersucht an ober- und unterirdisch lebenden Populationen des Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Pisces)
Parzefall, J. and Fricke, D. Journal Article 1990 Alarm raection and schooling in population hybrids of Astyanax (Pisces, Characidae)
Parzefall, J. and Fricke, D. Journal Article 1991 Alarm and schooling in population hybrids of Astyanax fasciatus
Langecker, T. G., Wilkens, H. and Junge, P. Journal Article 1991 Introgresve hybridisation in the Pachon cave population of Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae)
Campenhausen, C. Journal Article 1991 Die Bedentung der "inneren Landkarte" fur die Orientierung - Untersuchungen an blinden Hohlenfischen
Huppop, K. and Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1991 Bigger eggs in subterranean Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Pisces)
Riedel, G. and Krug, L. Journal Article 1991 Olfaktorische Regionen im Vorderhirn des blinden Hohlenfisches Asyanax hubbsi
Huppop, K. Journal Article 1991 Muskulatur als Fettspeicher beim mexikanischen Hohlensalmler Astyanax fasciatus
Hassan, E. S., Abdel-Latif, H. and Biebricher, R. Journal Article 1992 Studies on the effects of ca++ and co++ on the swimmimg behaviour of the blind Mexican cavefish
De Fraipont, M. Journal Article 1992 Response d'Astyanax mexicanus aux stimulations chimiques provenant de groupes de congeneres a differents stades de developpement
Wilkens, H. Book Section 1992 Neutral mutations and evolutionary progress
Parzefall, J. Journal Article 1992 Schooloing behaviour in population hybrids of Astyanax fasciatus and Poecilia mexicana (Pisces, Characidae and Poeciliidae)
Lamprecht, G. and Weber, F. Book Section 1992 Spontaneous locomotion behaviour in cavernicolous animals: The regression of the endogenous circadian system
Parzefall, J. Book Section 1992 Behavioural aspects in animals living in caves
Wilkens, H. and Meyer, M. Journal Article 1992 Eye formation and regression during early ontogeny in cave fishes
Langecker, T. G. and Longley, G. Book Section 1992 Blind catfish (Trogloglanis pattersoni and Satan eurystomus) from dep artesian waters. A study on convergent adaptations to cave and deep sea biota
Langecker, T. G. Journal Article 1993 Genetic analysis of the dorsal light reaction in epigean and cave-dwelling Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae)
Langecker, T. G., Schmale, H. and Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1993 Transcription of the opsin gene in degenerate eyes of cave dwelling Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae) and of its conspecific epigean ancestor during early ontogeny
Langecker, T. G., Schmale, H. and Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1993 Strukturelle und molekulargenetische Untersuchungen zur Augenreduktion beim Hohlenfisch Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae)
Peters, N., Schacht, V., Schmidt, W. and Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1993 Gehirnproportionen und Auspragungsgrad der Sinnesorgane von Astyanax mexicanus (Pisces: Characidae). Ein Vergleich zwischen dem Flussfisch ubd seinen Hohlen-derivaten 'Anoptichthus'
Hoffman, S. and Hausberg, C. Journal Article 1993 The aggressive behaviour of the Micos cave population (Astyanax fasciatus, Characidae, Teleostei) after selection for functional eyes in comaprison to an epigean one
Parzefall, J. Book Section 1993 Behavioural ecology of cave-dwelling fishes
Borowsky, R. Journal Article 1994 Blind cave tetras of the Sierra Madre Oriental
Teyke, T. and Schaerer, S. Journal Article 1994 Blind Mexican cave fish (Astyanax hubbsi) respond to moving visual stimuli
Langecker, T. G., Neumann, B., Hausberg, C. and Parzefall, J. Journal Article 1995 Evolution of the optical releasers for aggressive behaviour in cave-dwelling Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae)
Langecker, T. G., Wilkens, H. and Schmale, H. Journal Article 1995 Developmental constraints in regressive evolution: Studies of the expression of the delta-s crystallin gene in the developing lens of cave-dwelling Astaynax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819) (Teleostei, Characidae) by in situ hybridisation
Yokoyama, S., Meany, A., Wilkens, H. and Yokoyama, R. Journal Article 1995 Initial mutational steps towards loss of opsin gene function in cavefish
Borowsky, R. Journal Article 1996 The Sierra de El Abra of Northeastern Mexico: blind fish in the worlds largest cave system
Behrens, M., Langecker, T.G., Wilkens, H. and Schmale, H. Journal Article 1997 Comparative analysis of Pax-6 sequence and expression in the eye development of the blind cavefish Astyanax fasciatus and its epigean conspecific
Borowsky, R. and Espinasa, L. Journal Article 1997 Antiquity and origins of troglobitic Mexican tetras, Astyanax fasciatus
Riedel, G. Journal Article 1997 The forebrain of the blind cave fish Astyanax hubbsi (Characidae). I. General anatomy of the telencephalon
Riedel, G. and Krug, L. Journal Article 1997 The forebrain of the blind cave fish Astyanax hubbsi (Characidae). II. Projections of the olfactory bulb
Behrens, M, Wilkens, H and Schmale, H Journal Article 1998 Cloning of the alpha A-crystallin genes of a blind cave form and the epigean form of Astyanax mexicanus: a comparative analysis of structure, expression and evolutionary conservation
Wilkens, H. Book Section 1998 Genetics of cave fishes
Contreras-Balderas, S. and Lozano-Vilano, M.D.L. Journal Article 1998 Problemas nomenclaturales de las formas mexicanas del genero Astyanax (Pisces: Characidae)
Jeffery, WR and Martasian, DP Journal Article 1998 Evolution of eye regression in the cavefish Astyanax: apoptosis and the Pax-6 gene
Kullander, S. O. Journal Article 1999 Fish species - how and why
Baker, CF and Montgomery, J Journal Article 1999 The sensory basis of rheotaxis in the blind Mexican cave fish, Astyanax fasciatus
Espinasa, L. and Borowsky, R. Journal Article 2000 Eyed cave fish in a karst window
Yamamoto, Y. and Jeffery, W. R. Journal Article 2000 Central role for the lens in cave fish eye degeneration
Ford, D.C. Book Section 2000 5.3.1. Deep phreatic caves and groundwater systems of the Sierra de El Abra, Mexico
Jeffery, W. R., Strickler, A.G., Guiney, S., Heyser, D.G. and Tomarev, S.I. Journal Article 2000 Prox1 in eye degeneration and sensory organ compensation during development and evolution of the cavefish Astyanax
Espinasa, L. and Borowsky, R. Journal Article 2001 Origins and relationships of cave populations of the blind Mexican tetra, Astyanax fasciatus, in the Sierra de El Abra
Montgomery, J.C., Coombs, S. and Baker, C.F. Journal Article 2001 The mechanosensory lateral line system of the hypogean form of Astyanax fasciatus
Strickler, A.G., Yamamoto, Y. and Jeffery, W. R. Journal Article 2001 Early and late changes in Pax6 expression accompany eye degeneration during cavefish development
Boudriot, F and Reutter, K Journal Article 2001 Ultrastructure of the taste buds in the blind cave fish Astyanax jordani ("Anoptichthys") and the sighted river fish Astyanax mexicanus (Teleostei, Characidae)
Jeffery, W. R. Journal Article 2001 Cavefish as a model system in evolutionary developmental biology
Berg, A. and Watson, G.M. Journal Article 2002 Rapid recovery of sensory function in blind cave fish treated with anemone repair proteins
Romero, A., Jeffery, W.R. and Yamamoto, Y. Journal Article 2002 When cave fish see the light: Reaction norm to light exposure during development in epigean, troglomorphic, and hybrids of Astyanax fasciatus (Charicidae)
Strickler, AG, Famuditimi, K and Jeffery, WR Journal Article 2002 Retinal homeobox genes and the role of cell proliferation in cavefish eye degeneration
Dowling, TE, Martasian, DP and Jeffery, WR Journal Article 2002 Evidence for multiple genetic forms with similar eyeless phenotypes in the blind cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus
Borowsky, RL and Wilkens, H Journal Article 2002 Mapping a cave fish genome: Polygenic systems and regressive evolution
Krejca, J. Journal Article 2002 Recent field investigations of blind Astyanax
Strecker, U. Journal Article 2003 Polymorphic microsatellites isolated from the cave fish Astyanax fasciatus
Strecker, U., Bernatchez, L. and Wilkens, H. Journal Article 2003 Genetic divergence between cave and surface populations of Astyanax in Mexico (Characidae, Teleostei)
Porter, M.L. and Crandall, K.A. Journal Article 2003 Lost along the way: the significance of evolution in reverse
Sarma, SSS, Lopez-Romulo, A and Nandini, S Journal Article 2003 Larval feeding behaviour of blind fish Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae), black tetra Gymnocorymbus ternetzi (Characidae) and angel fish Pterophyllum scalare (Cichlidae) fed zooplankton
Contreras-Balderas, S, Almada-Villela, P, Lozano-Vilano, M de L and Garcia-Ramirez, ME Journal Article 2003 Freshwater fish at risk or extinct in Mexico
Wilkens, H. and Strecker, U. Journal Article 2003 Convergent evolution of the cavefish Astyanax (Characidae, teleostei): Genetic evidence from reduced eye-size and pigmentation
McCauley, DW, Hixon, E and Jeffery, WR Journal Article 2004 Evolution of pigment cell regression in the cavefish Astyanax: a late step in melanogenesis
Protas ME, Hersey C, Kochanek D, Zhou Y, Wilkens H, Jeffery WR, Zon LI, Borowsky R, Tabin CJ. Journal Article 2006 Genetic analysis of cave fish reveals molecular convergence in the evolution of albinism
Protas, M., Conrad, M., Gross, J.B., Tabin, C. and Borowsky, R.L. Journal Article 2007 Regressive evolution in the Mexican cave tetra, Astyanax mexicanus
Protas, M, Tabansky, I, Conrad, M, Gross, JB, Vidal, O, Tabin, C and Borowsky, RL Journal Article 2008 Multi-trait evolution in a cave fish, Astyanax mexicanus
Gross, J.B., Protas, M., Conrad, M., Scheid, P.E., Vidal, O., Jeffery, W.R., Tabin, C. and others Journal Article 2008 Synteny and candidate gene prediction using an anchored linkage map of Astyanax mexicanus
Salin, K, Voituron, Y, Colson, C and Hervant, F Journal Article 2008 To colonise subterranean environments without starvation tolerance capacity: the case of fish Astyanax mexicanus
Kowalko, J, Gross, JB, Protas, M, Borowsky, RL and Tabin, C Journal Article 2009 Genetic approaches to studying morphological and behavioural traits in Astyanax mexicanus
Jeffery, WR Journal Article 2009 Regresive evolution in Astyanax cavefish
Salin, K., Voituron, Y., Mourin, J. and Hervant, F. Journal Article 2010 Cave colonization without fasting capacities: an example with the fish Astyanax fasciatus mexicanus
Kish, P.E., Bohnsack, B.L., Gallina, D., Kasprick, D.S. and Kahana, A. Journal Article 2011 The eye as an organizer of craniofacial development
Esquivel-Bobadilla, S Thesis 2011 Análisis genético de Astyanax mexicanus (Characidae, Teleostei, Pisces) de la vertiente atlántica de México usando microsatélites.
Kowalko, J, Rohner, N, Borowsky, RL and Tabin, C Journal Article 2011 Cave fish as a model to elucidate the genetic basis of the evolution of behaviour
Yamamoto, Y. and Jeffery, W.R. Book Section 2011 Blind cavefish
Salin, K, Voituron, Y, Mourin, J and Hervant, F Journal Article 2011 Cave colonisation without fasting capacities: An example with the fish Astyanax fasciatus mexicanus
Bradic, M, Beerli, P and Borowsky, RL Journal Article 2011 Population genetic evidence for convergance and parallelism in the Mexican blind cavefish (Astyanax mexicanus)
Dufton, M, Hall, BK and Franz-Odendaal, T. Journal Article 2012 Early lens ablation causes dramatic long-term effects on the shape of bones in the craniofacial skeleton of Astyanax mexicanus
Protas, M. and Jeffery, W. R. Journal Article 2012 Evolution and development in cave animals: from fish to crustaceans
Idda, M.L., Bertolucci, C., Vallone, D., Gothilf, Y., Sánchez-Vázquez, F.J. and Foulkes N.S. Journal Article 2012 Circadian clocks: lessons from fish
Wilkens, H. Book Section 2012 Neutral mutations
Trontelj, P. Book Section 2012 Natural selection
Hervant, F. Book Section 2012 Starvation in Subterranean Species Versus Surface-Dwelling Species: Crustaceans, Fish, and Salamanders
Gross, J.B. Journal Article 2012 The complex origin of Astyanax cavefish
Bradic, M., Beerli, P., Garcia-de Leon, F. J., Esquivel-Bobadilla, S. and Borowsky, R. L. Journal Article 2012 Gene flow and population structure in the Mexican blind cavefish complex (Astyanax mexicanus)
Jeffery, W.R. Book Section 2012 Astyanax mexicanus: A model organism for evolution and adaptation
Pazza, R Journal Article 2013 Molecular systematics of the genus Astyanax - Starter edition
Atukorala, A. D. S., Hammer, C., Dufton, M. and Franz-Odendaal, T. A. Journal Article 2013 Adaptive evolution of the lower jaw dentition in Mexican tetra (Astyanax mexicanus)
Beale, A., Guibal, C., Tamai, T. K., Klotz, L., Cowen, S., Peyric, E., Reynoso, V. H., Yamamoto, Y. and Whitmore, D. Journal Article 2013 Circadian rhythms in Mexican blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus in the lab and in the field
Kowalko, J.E., Rohner, N., Rompani, S.B., Peterson, B.K., Linden, T.A., Yoshizawa, M., Kay, E.H., Weber, J., Hoekstra, H.E., Jeffery, W.R., Borowsky, R. and Tabin, C.J. Journal Article 2013 Loss of schooling behavior in cavefish through sight-dependent and sight-independent mechanisms
Beale, A. Thesis 2013 The circadian clock of the Mexican blind cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus
Rohner, N., Jarosz, D.F., Kowalko, J.E., Yoshizawa, M., Jeffery, W.R., Borowsky, R.L., Lindquist, S. and Tabin, C.J. Journal Article 2013 Cryptic variation in morphological evolution: HSP90 as a capacitor for loss of eyes in cavefish
Bibliowicz, J., Alie, A., Espinasa, L., Yoshizawa, M., Blin, M., Hinaux, H., Legendre, L., Pere, S. and Retaux, S. Journal Article 2013 Differences in chemosensory response between eyed and eyeless Astyanax mexicanus of the Rio Subterraneo cave
Rohner, N Journal Article 2013 HSP90 as a capacitor for the evolution of eye loss in fish
Kowalko, J., Rohner, N., Linden, T.A., Rompani S.B., Warren, W.C., Borowsky, R., Tabin, C.J., Jeffery, W.R. and Yoshizawa M. Journal Article 2013 Convergence in feeding posture occurs through different loci in independently evolved cave populations of Astyanax mexicanus.
Gross, J.B., Furterer, A., Carlson, B.M. and Stahl, B.A. Journal Article 2013 An integrated transcriptome-wide analysis of cave and surface dwelling Astyanax mexicanus
Elliott, William R. Journal Article 2013 Astyanax: Looking back 45 years
Stahl, B. A. and Gross, J. B. Journal Article 2013 Pigmentation loss in cave animals: A high-resolution study of destructive genetic mutations
Stahl, AL Journal Article 2013 An evaluation of eyelessness in cave dwelling Astyanax mexicanus using RNA-seq technology
Bradic, M., Teotonio, H. and Borowsky, R. L. Journal Article 2013 The population genomics of repeated evolution in the blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus
Moran, D., Softley, R. and Warrant, E.J. Journal Article 2014 Eyeless Mexican cavefish save energy by eliminating the circadian rhythm in metabolism
Atukorallaya, D. and Franz-Odendaal, T. Journal Article 2014 Astyanax mexicanus-A novel model of tooth shape formation and regeneration
Atukorala, A. D. S. and Franz-Odendaal, T. A. Journal Article 2014 Spatial and temporal events in tooth development of Astyanax mexicanus
McGaugh, S.E., Gross, J.B., Aken, B., Blin, M., Borowsky, R., Chalopin, D., Hinaux, H., Jeffery, W.R., Keene, A., Ma, L., Minx, P., Murphy, D., O'Quin, K.E., Retaux, S., Rohner, N., Searl, S.M., Stahl, B.A., Tabin, C., Volff, J.N., Yoshizawa M, Warren WC. Journal Article 2014 The cavefish genome reveals candidate genes for eye loss
Elliott, W.R. Journal Article 2014 Sotano de Yerbaniz
Espinasa, L., Bartolo, N.D. and Newkirk, C.E. Journal Article 2014 DNA sequences of troglobitic nicoletiid insects supports Sierra de El Abra and the Sierra de Guatemala as a single biogeographic area: Implications for Astyanax
Gross, J.B., Krutzler, A.J. and Carlson, B.M. Journal Article 2014 Complex craniofacial changes in blind cave-dwelling fish are mediated by genetically symmetric and asymmeric loci
Caballero-Hernandez, O., Hernandez-Patricio, M., Sigala-Regalado, I., Morales-Malacara, J. B. and Miranda-Anaya, M. Journal Article 2015 Circadian rhythms and photic entrainment of swimming activity in cave-dwelling fish Astyanax mexicanus (Actinopterygii: Characidae), from El Sotano La Tinaja, San Luis Potosi, Mexico
Silva, D. M. Z. A., Utsunomia, R., Pansonato-Alves, J.C., Oliveira, C. and Foresti, F. Journal Article 2015 Chromosomal Mapping of Repetitive DNA Sequences in Five Species of Astyanax (Characiformes, Characidae) Reveals Independent Location of U1 and U2 snRNA Sites and Association of U1 snRNA and 5S rDNA
Moran, D., Softley, R. and Warrant, E.J. Journal Article 2015 The energetic cost of vision and the evolution of eyeless Mexican cavefish
Yoshizawa, Masato, Robinson, Beatriz G., Duboue, Erik R., Masek, Pavel, Jaggard, James B., O'Quin, Kelly E., Borowsky, Richard L., Jeffery, William R. and Keene, Alex C. Journal Article 2015 Distinct genetic architecture underlies the emergence of sleep loss and prey-seeking behavior in the Mexican cavefish
Hinaux, H., Blin, M., Fumey, J., Legendre, L., Heuze, A., Casane, D. and Retaux, S. Journal Article 2015 Lens defects in Astyanax mexicanus cavefish: Evolution of crystallins and a role for alphaA-crystallin
Fumey, J. Journal Article 2015 Evidence of late Pleistocene origin of Astyanax mexicanus cavefish
Jaggard, J. B. Journal Article 2015 Distinct neural mechanisms underlie the convergent evolution of sleep loss in Astyanax
Dufton, Megan and Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A. Journal Article 2015 Morphological diversity in the orbital bones of two teleosts with experimental and natural variation in eye size
McGaugh, S. E. Journal Article 2015 Population genomics of cavefish
Devos, Lucie, Alie, A. and Retaux, S Journal Article 2015 Developmental evolution of the basal forebrain in cavefish
Stemmer, M., Schuhmacher, L.-N., Foulkes, N.S., Bertolucci, C. and Wittbrodt, J. Journal Article 2015 Cavefish eye loss in response to an early block in retinal differentiation progression
Aspiras, A.C., Rohner, N., Martineau, B., Borowsky, R.L. and Tabin, C.J. Journal Article 2015 Melanocortin 4 receptor mutations contribute to the adaptation of cavefish to nutrient-poor conditions
Bradic, M, Rohner, N, Tabin, C and Borowsky, R. Journal Article 2015 Caves with eyed and eyeless populations of Astyanax
Rohner, N Journal Article 2015 Hungry, fat and healthy - Studying the physiological basis of cave adaptation
Stahl, Bethany A. and Gross, Joshua B. Journal Article 2015 Alterations in Mc1r gene expression are associated with regressive pigmentation in Astyanax cavefish
Stahl, B. A., Ma, L and Gross, J. B. Journal Article 2015 High resolution genomic mapping reveals genes contributing to complex melaophore variation in Astyanax mexicanus cavefish
Carlson, B.M., Onusko, S.W. and Gross, J.B. Journal Article 2015 A high-density linkage map for Astyanax mexicanus Using genotyping-by-sequencing technology
Carlson, B.M. and Gross, J.B. Conference Paper 2016 The unusual suspects: Genetic analysis reveals candidate genes potentially underlying altered activity profiles in the blind Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus
Schmitter-Soto, JJ Journal Article 2016 A phylogeny of Astyanax (Characiformes: Characidae) in Central and North America
Beale, A., Whitmore, D. and Moran, D. Journal Article 2016 Life in a dark biosphere: A review of circadian physiology in "arrhythmic" environments
Keene, A.C., Yoshizawa, M. and McGaugh, S.E. Book 2016 Biology and Evolution of the Mexican Cavefish
Yoshizawa, M., Settle, A., Macaspac, C., Fernandes, V. Yoshida, M. and Keene, A. Conference Paper 2016 Adaptation through changes of behavioral and morphological traits in Mexican Cavefish
Atukorala, A. D. S. and Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A. Book Section 2016 Evolution and Development of the Cavefish Oral Jaws: Adaptations for Feeding
Beale, A. D. and Whitmore, D. Book Section 2016 Daily Rhythms in a Timeless Environment: Circadian Clocks in Astyanax mexicanus
O'Quin, Kelly and McGaugh, Suzanne E. Book Section 2016 Mapping the Genetic Basis of Troglomorphy in Astyanax: How Far We Have Come and Where Do We Go from Here?
Retaux, S., Alie, A., Blin, M., Devos, L., Elipot, Y. and Hinaux, H. Book Section 2016 Neural development and evolution in Astyanax mexicanus: Comparing cavefish and surface fish brains
Foulkes, N. S., Whitmore, D., Vallone, D and Bertolucci, C. Journal Article 2016 Studying the evolution of the vertebrate circadian clock: The power of fish as compataive models
Rohner, Nicolas Book Section 2016 Selection Through Standing Genetic Variation
Aspiras, A., Tabin, C. and Rohner, N. Conference Paper 2016 Astyanax mexicanus as a natural model for metabolic adaptation
Gross, J.B., Stahl, B.A., Powers, A.K. and Carlson, B.M. Journal Article 2016 Natural bone fragmentation in the blind cave-dwelling fish, Astyanax mexicanus: candidate gene identification through integrative comparative genomics
Casane, D. and Retaux, S. Journal Article 2016 Evolutionary genetics of the cavefish Astyanax mexicanus
Stahl, B Journal Article 2017 The evolution of neural circuitry regulating sleep and arousal in the blind mexican cavefish
Stahl, B.A. and Gross, J.B. Book 2017 A comparative transcriptomic analysis of development in two Astyanac cave populations
Schmitter-Soto, JJ Journal Article 2017 A revision of Astyanax (Characiformes: Characidae) in Central and North America, with the description of nine new species
Fumey J, Hinaux H, Noirot C, Thermes C, Re´ taux S, Casane D. Journal Article 2017 Evidence for Late Pleistocene origin of Astyanax mexicanus cavefish.
Jaggard, J. B. Journal Article 2017 The lateral line confers evolutionarily derived sleep loss in the mexican cavefish
Wilkens, H. and Strecker, U. Book 2017 Evolution in the Dark: Darwin's Loss Without Selection
Yoshizawa, M Journal Article 2017 Rapid evolution of the gut symbionts and asd-like behavior in the extreme cave environment
Alvarado, C.G. Journal Article 2017 Parallel evolution of body shape in Astyanax (Characidae) morphotypes
Hinaux, H, Recher, G, Alie, A., Legendre, L, Blin, M. and Retaux, S Journal Article 2017 Lens apoptosis in the Astyanax blind cavefish is not triggered by its small size or defects in morphogenesis
Lyon, A., Powers, A. K., Gross, J. B. and O'Quin, K. E. Journal Article 2017 Two – three loci control scleral ossicle formation via epistasis in the cavefish Astyanax mexicanus
Torres-Paz, J Journal Article 2017 Developmental evolution of the prosencephalon in blind cavefish: Origins of natural variations in neuropeptidergic patterning and their behavioral consequences
Gross, J. B. Journal Article 2017 Evolution and development of cranial asymmetry in Astyanax cavefish
Kaplan, S.A., Powers, A.K. and Gross, J.B. Conference Paper 2017 Understanding the Origin of Cranial Bone Fragmentation: Live-fluorescent Imaging Across Astyanax mexicanus Development
Jaggard, J. B., Robinson, B. G., Stahl, B, Oh, I, Masek, P, Yoshizawa, M and Keene, A. Journal Article 2017 The lateral line confers evolutionarily derived sleep loss in the Mexican cavefish.
Krishnan, J and Rohner, N Journal Article 2017 Cavefish and the basis for eye loss
Riddle, M.R., Aspiras, A.C., Gaudenz, K., Peuß, R., Sung, J.Y., Martineau, B., Peavey, M., Box, A.C., Tabin, J.A., McGaugh, S., Borowsky, R., Tabin, C.J. and Rohner, N. Journal Article 2018 Insulin resistance in cavefish as an adaptation to a nutrient-limited environment
Carlson, B.M. and Gross, J.B. Journal Article 2018 Characterization and comparison of activity profiles exhibited by the cave and surface morphotypes of the blind Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus
Ma, L., Strickler, A.G., Parkhurst, A., Yoshizawa, M., Shi, J. and Jeffery, W.R. Journal Article 2018 Maternal genetic effects in Astyanax cavefish development
Espinasa, L. Book Section 2018 The Guerrero fish population: Astyanax aeneus as a comparative cavefish model
Carlson, B.M., Klingler, I.B., Meyer, B.J. and Gross, J.B. Journal Article 2018 Genetic analysis reveals candidate genes for activity QTL in the blind Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus
Rohner, N. Journal Article 2018 Cavefish as an evolutionary mutant model system for human disease
Sears, C.R. and Gross, J.B. Conference Paper 2018 The RNA Architecture of Life in the Dark: A Transcriptomic Assessment of Varying Photic Conditions in the Blind Mexican Cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus
Fumey, J., Hinaux, H., Noirot, C., Thermes, C., Rétaux, S. and Casane, D. Journal Article 2018 Evidence for late Pleistocene origin of Astyanax mexicanus cavefish
Ren, X.Y., Hamilton, N., Müller, F. and Yamamoto, Y. Journal Article 2018 Cellular rearrangement of the prechordal plate contributes to eye degeneration in the cavefish
Espinasa, L., Legendre, L., Fumey, J., Blin, M., Rétaux, S. and Espinasa, M. Journal Article 2018 A new cave locality for Astyanax cavefish in Sierra de El Abra, Mexico
Stah, B.A., Sears, C.R., Ma, L., Perkins, M. and Gross, J.B. Book Section 2018 Pmela and Tyrp1b contribute to melanophore variation in Mexican cavefish
Mirande, J.M. Journal Article 2018 Morphology, molecules and the phylogeny of Characidae (Teleostei, Characiformes)
Klaassen, H., Wang, Y., Adamski, K., Rohner, N. and Kowalko, J.E. Journal Article 2018 CRISPR mutagenesis confirms the role of oca2 in melanin pigmentation in Astyanax mexicanus
Pazza, R., Dergam, J.A. and Kavalco, K.F. Journal Article 2018 Trends in karyotype evolution in Astyanax (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae): Insights from molecular data.
Powers, A.K., Boggs, T.E. and Gross, J.B. Journal Article 2018 Canal neuromast position prefigures developmental patterning of the suborbital bone series in Astyanax cave- and surface-dwelling fish
Borowsky, R. Journal Article 2018 Primer. Cavefishes
Rohner, N. Book Section 2018 “Out of the dark” Cavefish are entering biomedical research
Tabin, J.A., Aspiras, A., Martineau, B., Riddle, M., Kowalko, J. Borowsky, R. Rohner, N. and Tabin, C.J. Journal Article 2018 Temperature preference of cave and surface populations of Astyanax mexicanus
Jaggard, J.B., Stahl, B.A., Lloyd, E., Prober, D.A., Duboue, E.R. and Keene, A.C. Journal Article 2018 Hypocretin underlies the evolution of sleep loss in the Mexican cavefish
Borowsky, R., Luk, A., He, X.J. and Kim, R.S. Journal Article 2018 Unique sperm haplotypes are associated with phenotypically different sperm subpopulations in Astyanax fish
Kling, J. Journal Article 2018 Insulin resistance grows in the dark
Yoshizawa, M., Settle, A., Hermosura, M.C., Tuttle, L.J., Cetraro, N., Passow, C.N. and McGaugh, S.E. Journal Article 2018 The evolution of a series of behavioral traits is associated with autism-risk genes in cavefish
Chin, J.S.R., Gassant, C.E., Amaral, P.M., Lloyd, E., Stahl, B.A., Jaggard, J.B., Keene, A.C. and Duboue, E.R. Journal Article 2018 Convergence on reduced stress behavior in the Mexican Blind Cavefish
Fernandes, V.F.L., Macaspac, C., Lu, L. and Yoshizawa, M. Journal Article 2018 Evolution of the developmental plasticity and a coupling between left mechanosensory neuromasts and an adaptive foraging behavior
Devi, A., Atukorala, S. and Franz-Odendaal, T.A. Journal Article 2018 Genetic linkage between altered tooth and eye development in lens-ablated Astyanax mexicanus
Garita-Alvarado, C.A., Barluenga, M. and Ornelas-García, C.P. Journal Article 2018 Parallel evolution of morphs of Astyanax species (Teleostei: Characidae) in México and Central America
Frøland Steindal, I.V., Beale, A.D., Yamamoto, Y. and Whitmore, D. Journal Article 2018 Development of the Astyanax mexicanus circadian clock and non-visual light responses
Gross, J.B., Weagley, J., Stahl, B.A., Ma, L., Espinasa, L. and McGaugh, S.E. Journal Article 2018 A local duplication of the Melanocortin receptor 1 locus in Astyanax
Retaux, S. Journal Article 2018 The healthy diabetic cavefish conundrum
Stern, D.B and Crandall, K.A. Journal Article 2018 The evolution of gene expression underlying vision loss in cave animals
Blin, M., Tine, E., Meister, L., Elipot, Y., Bibliowicz, J., Espinasa, L. and Rétaux, S. Journal Article 2018 Developmental evolution and developmental plasticity of the olfactory epithelium and olfactory skills in Mexican cavefish
Xiong, S., Krishnan, J., Peuß, F. and Rohner, N. Journal Article 2018 Early adipogenesis contributes to excess fat accumulation in cave populations of Astyanax mexicanus
Alie, A., Devos, L., Torres-Paz, J., Prunier, L., Boulet, F., Blin, M., Elipot, Y. and Retaux, S. Journal Article 2018 Developmental evolution of the forebrain in cavefish, from natural variations in neuropeptides to behavior
Kopp, J., Avasthi, S. and Espinasa, L. Journal Article 2018 Phylogeographical convergence between Astyanax cavefish and mysid shrimps in the Sierra de El Abra, Mexico
Torres-Paz,J., Hyacinthe, C., Pierre, C., Retaux, S. Journal Article 2018 Towards an integrated approach to understand Mexican cavefish evolution
Elliott, W.R. Book 2018 The Astyanax Caves of Mexico: Cavefishes of San Luís Potosí, Tamaulipas, and Guerrero
Ojha, A. and Watve, M. Journal Article 2018 Blind fish: An eye opener
Powers, A.K., Kaplan, S.A., Boggs, T.E. and Gross, J. Journal Article 2018 Facial bone fragmentation in blind cavefish arises through two unusual ossification processes
Devitsina, G.V. and Golovkina, T.V. Journal Article 2018 Structural Organization of the Taste Apparatus in Characins (Characidae, Teleostei
Gore, A., Jeffery, W., Retaux, S. and Rohner, N. Book 2018 Cavefish development
Gore, A.V., Rohner, N., Rétaux, S. and Jeffery, W.R. Journal Article 2018 Seeing a bright future for a blind fish
Maximum likelyhood tree for part of the Family Characidae showing the relationships of Astyanax jordani (Figure 10 in Oliveira et al. 2011)