Journal Article

Subterranean biodiversity in the Serra da Bodoquena karst area, Paraguay river basin, Mato Grosso do Sul, Southwestern Brazil

Cordeiro, L.M., Borghezan, R. and Trajano, E.

Record Number:
2583
Year:
2014
Journal:
Biota Neotropica
Pages:
1-28
Volume:
14
Abstract:
We present herein a synthesis of faunistic data from caves in the Serra da Bodoquena karst area, middle Paraguay River basin, Mato Grosso do Sul State. Those include phreatic, submerged and dry caves. Emphasis is given to troglobites (exclusively subterranean species), potentially threatened due to their morphological, physiological and behavioral specializations, associated to generally small distributions. The Bodoquena karst area distinguishes as a spot of high diversity of troglobites, such as trichomycterid and heptapterid catfishes, aquatic planarians and gastropods, arachnids (Eusarcus opilionids, ctenid spiders), Polydesmida diplopods, several collembolans, some insects, and Peracarida crustaceans, which include interesting phylogenetic relicts as spelaeogriphaceans. Four geographic compartments corresponding to microbasins, seemingly with biogeographic importance for the subterranean fauna, are recognized. Phreatobic troglobites (Trichomycterus catfishes, aquatic peracarids, planarians) distribute widely across these compartments and some well beyond (the spelaeogriphacean Potiicoara brasiliensis reaches Mato Grosso state), while those living in base-level streams (Rhamdia and Ancistrus catfishes) and the terrestrial ones, that live in the vadose (aerated zone) are generally restricted to one compartment. Many subterranean ecosystems in Mato Grosso do Sul are endangered by several threats described here and urgent actions for effective protection are required to guarantee a sustainable use of the land and the karst aquifers.
Times Cited:
3
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