Adams and Burr in Adams, Burr, Day and Starkey 2013
Cottus carolinae species group [Burr, Adams, Krejca and Warren 2001]
The common name is Grotto Sculpin (Adams et al. 2013)
Holotype: SIUC 88001 ♂ 80.2mm SL.
Paratypes: SIUC 88002 (2 specimens) 58.0mm SL and 60.6mm SL, USNM 409781 (2 specimens) 65.3mm SL and 86.7mm SL.
Hypogean populations have been found in five large base level caves and six resurgenses in Perry County, Missouri, USA (37o35’N, 90o05’W). These are in two separate karst basins: Mystery-Rimstone Karst (MRK in the Table) to the east of the surface river called Cinque Hommes Creak, and Central Perryville Karst (CPK in the Table) to the west of the river. The extensive Mystery Cave may contain up to 2000 individuals (Burr, Adams, Krejca, Paul and Warren 2001). Troglomorphic individuals have also been collected in epigean waters of eight rivers in the region, presumably after leaving the caves via the resurgences. In the Table below the two letter abbreviations are to assist in interpretation of the Tables and Figures in Day et al. (2014).
Elliott (2007) says of the Perryville karst "Some of the densest known karst development in the USA occurs in Perry County, in limestones of middle Ordovician age or older. About 700 cave entrances are recorded in the large sinkhole plain, with many large river caves, such as Crevice Cave, the longest in Missouri at 45 km. Large stream caves are especially developed in the Cinque Hommes Creek area. The uplands are covered with up to 10 m of loess derived from the Mississippi River flood plain (Vandike, 1985), and there is heavy row crop agriculture. Biologically similar to the Jefferson-Ste. Genevieve Karst, the Perryville Karst has its own endemics and lacks trechine beetles. Endemic species include Sphalloplana evaginata, Perryville cave planarian, Kenkia lewisi, Lewis’ cave planarian, and Cottus [specus] ... Grotto sculpin (Burr et al., 2001), now on Missouri’s Species of Concern List. Mystery Cave ranks as third in cave biodiversity in Missouri. With 18 troglobites, this karst has high area endemism."
|Area||Location||Type of site|
|1||CPK||Moore Cave TM||Cave|
|2||CPK||Crevice Cave (inc. Mertz Cave) CC||Cave|
|3||MRK||Mystery Cave * MC||Cave|
|4||MRK||Running Bull Cave RB||Cave|
|5||MRK||Rimstone River Cave (inc. Hot Caverns) RR||Cave|
|6||Blue Spring BS||Resurgence|
|7||Cinque Hommes Creek CH||Resurgence|
|8||Mystery Resurgence MR||Resurgence|
|9||Thunderhole Resurgence TH||Resurgence|
|10||Greasy Creak GC||Resurgence|
|11||Gerler Spring GS||Resurgence|
|12||Dry Fork Creek DF||Surface river|
|13||Current River CR||Surface river|
|14||Saline Creek SC||Surface river|
|15||Apple Creek AC||Surface river|
|16||Brazeau Creek BZ||Surface river|
|17||Wolf Creek WC||Surface river|
|18||Whitewater River WW||Surface river|
|19||Southfork saline River SF||Surface river|
|Details from Day et al. (2014)|
|* Type locality|
Grotto Sculpin live in running water in base level streams. They are found in pools and riffles and over a variety of substrates (Burr, Adams, Krejca, Paul and Warren 2001).
Rewrite all of this
There are remarkable differences between Grotto Sculpin and surface C. carolinea. They show apparent cave modifications including: reduced pigment, reduced eye size, reduced number of pelvic fin rays, a gap between the dorsal fins, a modified cephalic lateral line system and a longer caudal peduncle. Burr, Warren and Paul (1992), Paul, Burr and Warren (1993) and Burr, Adams, Krejca, Paul and Warren (2001) analysed 10 meristic and 28 morphometric variables in epigean and hypogean specimens. A Principal Component Analysis showed there to be a total separation of the epi- and hypogean populations in eye length vs. standard length, pelvic fin ray number and details of the cephalic lateral line system. It seems possible that this is an example of a troglophile/troglobite transition.
Through the work of Brooks Burr and his students at Southern Illinois University, beginning in the early 1990s, continued by Ginny Adams and her students at the University of Central Arkansas, and more recently by John Schiebe and his students at Southeast Missouri State University, a considerable amount is known about numerous aspects of the biology of this species. The following is a selection of publications which will provide a well-rounded introduction to what is known.
Peck and Lewis (1977) A comprehensive account of the invertebrates which inhabit the caves containing Cottus specus.
Vandike (1985) Descibes the hydrogeology of the Perriville karst area.
Gardner (1986) Describes the invertebrates found in Missouri caves and springs, therefore of direct ecological relevance.
Burr, Warren and Paul (1992), Paul, Burr and Warren (1993), Krejca, Burr, Warren and Paul (1994), Krejca, Burr, Paul and Warren (1994). These four publications were all short abstracts for various conferences and I have not been able to obtain any of them to see what they said.
Paul (1994) A thesis describing aspects of cave adaptation.
Krejca (1994) With Walsh (above) the most important source for the caves in which this species is found.
Burr, Adams, Krejca, Paul and Warren (2001) The first comprehesive account of the biology of Grotto Sculpin which was still, at that time, considered as a member of the species Cottus corolinae. This paper and Adams (2005) are the most significant accounts of the overall biology, though some later publications get into more detail about particular parts of the biology.
Brison (2001) A thesis studying experimental analysis of metabolic adaptation in response to photoperiod and food availability.
Adams (2005) This Ph.D. thesis is equally as important for detail as the Burr et al. (2001) paper and should be consulted by anyone with an interest in this species.
Kinziger, Goodman and Studebaker (2007) Shows that there is a great deal of genetic structure within Cottus carolinae, laying the groundwork for the creation of a new species in 2013.
Elliott (2007) A major review of caves, karst, conservation and biogeography in Missouri.
Gerken and Adams (2008) A short paper on habitat use.
Johnson, Day and Adams (2008) Probably a meeting abstract describing life history characteristics in cave and surface streams.
Adams, Day, Gerken and Johnson (2008) Population ecology.
Day, Johnson, Gerken and Adams (2008) Population ecology.
Fox, Adams, Sharum and Steelman (2010) Passive sampling of bioavailable organic chemicals in cave streams.
USFWS (2013) Species listed as Federally Endangerd by US Fish and Wildlife Sercice.
USFWS (2013) Brief note announcing the Listing.
Crabill, Simmons, Marquardt and Salveter (2013) Describes the actions taken to protect the species once it was listed as Federally Endangered in 2013.
Perry County Community Conservation Plan (2013) Draft plan for water protection in Perry County
Moss (2013) Recharge area delineations and hazard and vulnerability mapping in the Perriville karst
Adams, Burr, Day and Starkey (2013) The long awaited step of creating a new species, Cottus specus, for the Grotto Sculpin.
Industrial Economics Incorporated (2013) A very intensive and extensive analysis of the financial costs of implementing the Endangered species protection plans.
Day, Starkey, Adams, Brummett and Keeney (2014) A detailed study of the population genetics and relationships of the various groups of Cottus specus in the karst areas.
Day, Starkey and Gerken (2014) Showed that parasitism by Acanthocephala is worse in hypogean populations than in epigean populations in Missouri. Perhaps because of increased cannibalism in the caves.
Day, Gerken and Adams (2014) Population ecology and seasonal demography
Fernholz and Phelps (2016) A study to determine if PIT tags are suitable for use as individual markers in Cottus specus.
Fernholz (2017) A thesis in two chapters. Chapter 1 is effectively the same as Fernholz and Phelps (2016). Chapter 2 is on habitat selectivity and availability and appears not to have been published otherwise.
USFWS (2018) [Waiting for a copy]
Chowning (2020) A thesis to determine the best sampling protocols and to investige the life history of Grotto Sculpin.
All from Burr et al. (2001)
SIUC 19279 (20 specimens, 66–103 mm SL) Cinque Hommes Creek, 1992.
SIUC 18916 (3 specimens) Sculpin Stream, Mystery Cave, 21 April 1991.
SIUC 19904 (3 specimens) Mystery Cave, 7 March 1992.
SIUC 18923 (20 specimens, 52–80 mm SL), Mystery Cave, 1 October 1991.
SIUC 21258 (4 specimens, 57–88 mm SL) Hot Caverns, 4 October 1992.
SIUC 19839 (23 specimens, 51–95 mm SL) Flaming River Cave, 3 July 1992.
SIUC 21260 (8 specimens, 34–56 mm SL) Running Bull Cave, 25 October 1992.
SIUC 20916 (9 specimens, 31–80 mm SL) Tom Moore Cave, 25 October 1992.
GenBank accession numbers for haplotypes
Haplotype MID1 KC172894
Haplotype MID2 KC172895
Haplotype BR1 KC172896
Haplotype BR2 KC172897
- Robins, C.R. (1954)
- House, S. (1976)
- Peck, S.B. and Lewis, J.J. (1977)
- Williams, J. D. and Howell, W. M. (1979)
- Vandike, J.E. (1985)
- Gardner, J.E. (1986)
- Walsh, J. (1988)
- Walsh, J. (1989)
- Burr, B.M., Warren, M.L. and Paul, R.J. (1992)
- Paul, R.J., Burr, B.M. and Warren, M.L. (1993)
- Krejca, J., Burr, B.M., Warren, M.L. and Paul, R.J. (1994)
- Krejca, J.K., Burr, B.M., Paul, R.J. and Warren, M.L. (1994)
- Paul, R.J. (1994)
- Krejca, J. (1994)
- Walsh, J. (1995)
- Coombs, S. (1999)
- Coombs, S., Finneran, J.J. and Conley, R.A. (2000)
- Brison, L.L. (2001)
- Burr, B.M., Adams, G.L., Krejca, J., Paul, R.J. and Warren, M.L. (2001)
- Coombs, S., Braun, C.B. and Donovan, B. (2001)
- Adams, G. and Burr, B.M (2001)
- Aley, T., Ashley, D.C., Elliott, W.R., McGlimsey, M., Weaver, D. and Beard, J (2002)
- Elliott, W.R. (2003)
- Kanter, M.J. and Coombs, S. (2003)
- Adams, G. (2005)
- Kinziger, A.P., Wood, R.M. and Neely, D.A. (2005)
- Robins, C.R. (2005)
- Niemiller, M.L., Glorioso, B.M. and Miller, B.T. (2006)
- Kerfoot, J.R. and Schaefer, J.F. (2006)
- Elliott, W.R. (2007)
- Kinziger, A.P., Goodman, D.H. and Studebaker, R.S. (2007)
- Gerken, J.E. and Adams, G. (2008)
- Day, J.L., Johnson, C.R., Gerken, J.E. and Adams, G. (2008)
- Adams, G., Day, J., Gerken, J.E. and Johnson, C.R. (2008)
- Aley, T., Aley, C., Moss, P. and Hertzler, T. (2008)
- Johnson, C.R., Day, J.L. and Adams, G. (2008)
- Fox, J.T., Adams, G.L., Sharum, M.and Steelman, K. (2010)
- Crabill, T., Simmons, B., Marquardt, S. and Salveter, A. (2013)
- Perry County Community Economic and Environment Committee (2013)
- U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (2013)
- Adams, G., Burr, B.M., Day, J. and Starkey, D.E. (2013)
- U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (2013)
- Industrial Economics Incorporated (2013)
- Crites, J., and Schubert, H. (2013)
- Moss, P. (2013)
- Day, J., Starkey, D.E. and Gerken, J.E. (2014)
- Day, J., Starkey, D.E., Adams, G., Brummett, S. and Keeney, D. (2014)
- Day, J., Gerken, J.E. and Adams, G. (2016)
- Fernholz, J. and Phelps, Q.E. (2016)
- Ruppert, J.L.W., James, P.M.A., Taylor, E.B., Rudlofsem, T., Veillard, M., Davis, C.S., Watkinson, D. and Poesch, M.S. (2017)
- Gebhard, A.E and Perkin, J.S. (2017)
- Fernholz, J. (2017)
- Wells, W.G., Johnson, T.C., Gebhard, A.E., Paine, R.T.R., Hix, L.A., Ferrell, H.N., Engle, A.N. and Perkin, J.S. (2018)
- U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (2018)
- Baek, S.Y., Kang, J.H., Jo, S.H., Jang, J.E., Byeon, S.Y., Wang, J.H., Lee, H.G., Choi, J.K. and Lee, H.J. (2018)
- Chowning, M.E. (2020)
|Robins, C.R.||Thesis||1954||A taxonomic revision of the Cottus bairdi and Cottus carolinae species group in eastern North American (Pisces, Cottidae)|
|House, S.||Journal Article||1976||Karst and cave distribution in Perry County|
|Peck, S.B. and Lewis, J.J.||Journal Article||1977||Zoogeography and evolution of the subterranean invertebrate faunas of Illinois and southestern Missouri|
|Williams, J. D. and Howell, W. M.||Journal Article||1979||An albino sculpin from a cave in the New River drainage of West Virginia (Pisces: Cottidae)|
|Vandike, J.E.||Journal Article||1985||Movement of shallow groundwater in the Perryville karst area, Southeastern Missouri|
|Gardner, J.E.||Report||1986||Invertebrate fauna from Missouri caves and springs|
|Walsh, J.||Journal Article||1988||Mystery Cave|
|Walsh, J.||Journal Article||1989||Rimstone River Cave|
|Burr, B.M., Warren, M.L. and Paul, R.J.||Journal Article||1992||Cavernicolous sculpins of the Cottus carolinae species group from Mystery Cave, Missouri|
|Paul, R.J., Burr, B.M. and Warren, M.L.||Journal Article||1993||Cavernicolous sculpins of the Cottus carolinae species group from Perry County, Missouri: Cave-life phenomena or speciation ?|
|Krejca, J., Burr, B.M., Warren, M.L. and Paul, R.J.||Journal Article||1994||Cavernicolous sculpins of the Cottus carolinae species group (Pisces, Cottidae) from Perry County, Missouri|
|Krejca, J.K., Burr, B.M., Paul, R.J. and Warren, M.L.||Journal Article||1994||Cavernicolous sculpins of the Cottus carolinae species group (Pisces: Cottidae) from Perry County, Missouri|
|Paul, R.J.||Thesis||1994||Aspects of cave adaptation in sculpins of the Cottus carolinae species group (Cottidae) in Perry County, Missouri|
|Krejca, J.||Thesis||1994||Field research to determine the distribution of a cave-adapted Sculpin (Osteichthyes: Cottidae)|
|Walsh, J.||Journal Article||1995||Exploration of Rimstone River Cave|
|Coombs, S.||Journal Article||1999||Signal detection theory, lateral‐line excitation patterns and prey capture behaviour of mottled sculpin|
|Coombs, S., Finneran, J.J. and Conley, R.A.||Journal Article||2000||Hydrodynamic image formation by the peripheral lateral line system of the Lake Michigan mottled sculpin, Cottus bairdi.|
|Brison, L.L.||Thesis||2001||Experimental analysis of metabolic adaptation of Cottus carolinae in response to photoperiod and food availability|
|Burr, B.M., Adams, G.L., Krejca, J., Paul, R.J. and Warren, M.L.||Journal Article||2001||Troglomorphic sculpins of the Cottus carolinae species group in Perry County, Missouri: Distribution, external morphology and conservation status|
|Coombs, S., Braun, C.B. and Donovan, B.||Journal Article||2001||The orienting response of Lake Michigan mottled sculpin is mediated by canal neuromasts.|
|Adams, G. and Burr, B.M||Journal Article||2001||Troglomorphic Banded Sculpin (Cottus Carolinae) in Perry County, Missouri: Morphological Variation and Conservation Status. (Speleology Section).|
|Aley, T., Ashley, D.C., Elliott, W.R., McGlimsey, M., Weaver, D. and Beard, J||Book||2002||Conserving Missouri's caves and karst|
|Elliott, W.R.||Book||2003||A guide to Missouri's cave life|
|Kanter, M.J. and Coombs, S.||Journal Article||2003||Rheotaxis and prey detection in uniform currents by Lake Michigan mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi)|
|Adams, G.||Thesis||2005||Morphology, genetics and physiology of a troglomorphic sculpin, Cottus carolinae|
|Kinziger, A.P., Wood, R.M. and Neely, D.A.||Journal Article||2005||Molecular systematics of the genus Cottus (Scorpaeniformes: Cottidae)|
|Robins, C.R.||Journal Article||2005||Cottus kanawhae, a new cottid fish from the New River System of Virginia and West Virginia|
|Niemiller, M.L., Glorioso, B.M. and Miller, B.T.||Journal Article||2006||An eastern and subterranean maximum size record of the banded sculpin, Cottus carolinae, from Tennessee|
|Kerfoot, J.R. and Schaefer, J.F.||Journal Article||2006||Ecomorphology and habitat utilization of Cottus species|
|Elliott, W.R.||Journal Article||2007||Zoogeography and biodiversity of Missouri cave and karst|
|Kinziger, A.P., Goodman, D.H. and Studebaker, R.S.||Journal Article||2007||Mitochondrial DNA variation in the Ozark Highland members of the Banded Sculpin Cottus carolinae complex|
|Gerken, J.E. and Adams, G.||Journal Article||2008||Habitat use by Grotto Sculpin (Cottus carolinae), a troglomorphic fish in Perry County, Missouri|
|Day, J.L., Johnson, C.R., Gerken, J.E. and Adams, G.||Journal Article||2008||Population ecology of Grotto Sculpin (Cottus carolinae) in cave and resurgence streams|
|Adams, G., Day, J., Gerken, J.E. and Johnson, C.R.||Report||2008||Population ecology of the Grotto Sculpin, Cottus carolinae, in Perry County, Missouri|
|Aley, T., Aley, C., Moss, P. and Hertzler, T.||Journal Article||2008||Hydrogeological characteristics of delineated recharge areas for 40 biologically significant cave and spring systems in Missouri, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Illinois|
|Johnson, C.R., Day, J.L. and Adams, G.||Journal Article||2008||Life history characteristics of Grotto Sculpin (Cottus carolinae) in cave and surface streams of Perry County, Missouri|
|Fox, J.T., Adams, G.L., Sharum, M.and Steelman, K.||Journal Article||2010||Passive sampling of bioavailable organic chemicals in Perry County, Missouri cave streams|
|Crabill, T., Simmons, B., Marquardt, S. and Salveter, A.||Web Page||2013||Recovering aquatic life in Missouri|
|Perry County Community Economic and Environment Committee||Report||2013||Protecting our water to protect our community|
|U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service||Web Page||2013||U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service lists the Grotto Sculpin as endangered|
|Adams, G., Burr, B.M., Day, J. and Starkey, D.E.||Journal Article||2013||Cottus specus, a new troglomophic species of Sculpin (Cottidae) from southeastern Missouri|
|U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service||Report||2013||Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants: Determination of endangered species status for the Grotto Sculpin (Cottus specus) throughout its range|
|Industrial Economics Incorporated||Report||2013||Economic analysis of critical habitat designation for the Grotto Sculpin|
|Crites, J., and Schubert, H.||Report||2013||Perry County karst project: Summary and future management implications for Grotto Sculpin.|
|Moss, P.||Journal Article||2013||Recharge area delineations and hazard and vulnerability mapping in Perry County, Missouri|
|Day, J., Starkey, D.E. and Gerken, J.E.||Journal Article||2014||Prevalence of parasitism in the Grotto Sculpin (Cottus specus), a new species of cave-adapted fish from southeastern Missouri, USA|
|Day, J., Starkey, D.E., Adams, G., Brummett, S. and Keeney, D.||Journal Article||2014||Population genetics of grotto sculpin (Cottus specus), a new cave-adapted fish species|
|Day, J., Gerken, J.E. and Adams, G.||Journal Article||2016||Population ecology and seasonal demography of endangered grotto sculpin (Cottus specus)|
|Fernholz, J. and Phelps, Q.E.||Journal Article||2016||Influence of PIT tags on growth and survival of Banded Sculpin (Cottus carolinae): Implications for endangered Grotto Sculpin (Cottus specus)|
|Ruppert, J.L.W., James, P.M.A., Taylor, E.B., Rudlofsem, T., Veillard, M., Davis, C.S., Watkinson, D. and Poesch, M.S.||Journal Article||2017||Riverscape genetic structure of a threatened and dispersal limited freshwater species, the Rocky Mountain Sculpin (Cottus sp.)|
|Gebhard, A.E and Perkin, J.S.||Journal Article||2017||Assessing riverscape-scale variation in fish life history using banded sculpin (Cottus carolinae)|
|Fernholz, J.||Thesis||2017||Influence of PIT tags on growth and survival of Banded Sculpin (Cottus carolinae): Implications for endangered Grotto Sculpin (Cottus specus)|
|Wells, W.G., Johnson, T.C., Gebhard, A.E., Paine, R.T.R., Hix, L.A., Ferrell, H.N., Engle, A.N. and Perkin, J.S.||Journal Article||2018||March of the sculpin: measuring and predicting short‐term movement of banded sculpin Cottus carolinae|
|U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service||Report||2018||Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants - Designation of Critical Habitat for the Grotto Sculpin (Cottus Specus)|
|Baek, S.Y., Kang, J.H., Jo, S.H., Jang, J.E., Byeon, S.Y., Wang, J.H., Lee, H.G., Choi, J.K. and Lee, H.J.||Journal Article||2018||Contrasting life histories contribute to divergent patterns of genetic diversity and population connectivity in freshwater sculpin fishes|
|Chowning, M.E.||Thesis||2020||Establishing a sampling protocol and investigating the life history of the federally endangered Grotto Sculpin (Cottus specus) in the karst systems of Perry County, Missouri|