Metadata

Astyanax jordani

(Hubbs and Innes 1936) Buckup 2003

Astyanax jordani
Astyanax jordani from Cueva de El Pachon. Photograph by Jean Louis Lacaille Múzquiz
ORDERSUB-ORDERFAMILY
CharaciformesCharacoideiCharacidae

Note

The status of the hypogean populations of Astyanax species in San Luis Potosi and Tamaulipas, Mexico, and the consequences for taxonomy and nomenclature, have been debated since their discovery in 1936. The problems have been exacerbated because there are no modern taxonomic or systematic studies of the genus. Although originally included in a separate genus (Anoptichthys) most references to these animals called them either Astyanax mexicanus (de Filippi 1853) or Astyanax  fasciatus (Cuvier 1819). This was in recognition that the hypogean and epigean populations are able to interbreed, a tenet of the Biological Species Concept. There are however many important autapomorphies in the hypogean populations and, under the Phylogenetic Species Concept, the hypogean and epigean animals are separate species. This debate will continue, but I have decided here to follow my own instincts and include the hypogean forms as a separate species. This decision is supported in the most recent authoritative account of the genus (Buckup 2003). In this account A. jordani is treated as a valid separate species, and is not placed in the synonymy of either A. fasciatus or A. mexicanus. Numerous other authors (e.g. Reddell 1981; Trajano 2001) accept that the hypogean and epigean fishes belong to different species. See also the discussion of this topic in Kullander (1999:339-340) which also concludes that the epigean and hypogean populations must be considered as separate species. Two of the most recent reviews of the biology of the fishes (Wilkens and Strecker 2017, Elliott 2018) also draw this conclusion.

There are complications ahead, as it is very likely that more than one invasion of caves from the surface has taken place and that more than one species is now present in the caves of the area. However, at least one of these (from the type locality, Cueva Chica) will be validly Astyanax jordani. The others will obtain names when the situation is better understood.

Synonyms

Anoptichthys jordani  Hubbs and Innes 1936

Anoptichthys antrobius  Alvarez 1946

Anoptichthys hubbsi  Alvarez 1947

Astyanax fasciatus  (Cuvier 1819) cave form

Astyanax mexicanus  (De Filippi 1853) cave form

These are the only true synonyms. Since the cave fish has often been regarded as conspecific with Astyanax mexicanus (de Filippi, 1853), and with Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819), it has often been referred to under these names. Reddell (1981:238 243, 325) provides a list of names used and a full bibliography to that date.

Country

México

Types

Holotype of Anoptichthys jordani: UMMZ 113514, adult 51mm SL. Paratypes of Anoptichthys jordani: UMMZ 114486, 4 specimens; BMNH 1951.12.3:14‑17; plus others.

Distribution

Type locality: La Cueva Chica, San Luis Potosí, México. Sites from which this species has been recorded are distributed from 21o50’ – 23o10’N, 98o50’ – 99o14’W, see Mitchell, Russell and Elliott (1977) and Elliott (2018) for full details. Caves in which the fishes are found in seven areas:

Area and cave Length (m) Depth (m)
Gómez-Farías area    
Sótano de Jineo + 302 144
Sótano del Molino 658 138
Sótano Escondido + 100 148
Chamal-Ocampo area    
Bee Cave + 245 119
Sótano de Caballo Moro 285 211
Sótano de Vásquez 1500 277
Northern Sierra de El Abra    
Cueva de El Pachón 1000 8
Sótano del Venadito + 3663 206
Yerbaniz cluster    
Sótano de Yerbaniz 2238 97
Sótano de Matapalma 1722 86
Sótano de Japonés 4500 140
Los Sabinos area    
Sótano del Tigre + 3000 162
Sótano de la Roca + 20 42
Cueva de Los Sabinos 1502 96
Sótano del Arroyo 7202 133
Sótano de la Tinaja 4502 82
Sótano de Soyate + 206 234
Sótano de Pichijumo (Montecillos) 1330 82
Sótano de Jos + 338 85
Sótano de las Piedras 405 52
Sótano de la Palma Seca 164 54
Southern Sierra de El Abra    
Cueva de la Curva 214 19
Sótano de Toro 66 5
La Cueva Chica * 302 19
Los Cuates + 400 33
Cueva Chiquitita 20 16
Cueva de Otates + 269 15
Micos and Tamasopo areas    
Cueva del Río Subterráneo 475 32
Cueva del Otates 269 15
Cueva Lienzo + 225 23
Cueva del Fraile + 50 10

The known distribution of Astyanax jordani. * type locailty, + caves not yet sampled for genetic studies and therefore of high priority to do so. Information from Elliott (2018)

Habitat

Most of the populations are known from lakes and streams within the vadose region of the caves. Two exceptions to this are the populations in Sótano de Soyate and Sótano del Venadito which are almost certainly living in the low level phreatic zone of the karst area. In particular the Soyate population is in a huge deep lake-like area which is probably the main groundwater flow in this area. During high flow the water levels rise considerably and fishes from the phreatic populations may become washed into vadose areas and become stranded there for a time.

Systematics

This fish is the most extensively studied of cave dwelling animals. The reason for its pre-eminence is that it is easy to breed in captivity and interfertile with the epigean Astyanax mexicanus. These properties allow very detailed studies, and in particular genetical ones, to be made easily. A large number of publications have resulted from these studies (see Elliott (2018) and this web site for bibliographies) but there has been great confusion as to the name and status of the animal. The following discussion outlines the problem and poses a solution.

The first population to be discovered, in La Cueva Chica, was described by Hubbs and Innes (1936) as a new genus and species, Anoptichthys jordani. In the following ten years two other populations were discovered in La Cueva de El Pachon and La Cueva de Los Sabinos. Alvarez (1946, 1947) included them in the genus Anoptichthys as Anoptichthys antrobius and Anoptichthys hubbsi respectively. It is now known that the cave fishes are widespread (Mitchell, Russell, and Elliott 1977), (Reddell 1981:238‑243, 325), (Elliott 2018)  and there are now 31 known sites.

In their original description of Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs and Innes (1936) recognised that: "Anoptichthys agrees with the genus and subgenus Astyanax in all apparent characters other than those associated with blindness and subterranean life". The epigean Astyanax mexicanus (for a discussion of the Astyanax mexicanus / Astyanax fasciatus “problem” see Miller and Smith 1986) and the hypogean Anoptichthys jordani are not only very similar in morphology, but they possess the same (or very similar) karyotype (Kirby, Thompson, and Hubbs 1977) and are interfertile. These, plus the sympatric distribution, provide strong evidence that Anoptichthys jordani is very closely related to, and in all probability, directly evolved from, Astyanax mexicanus. There is therefore no reason for recognising a distinct genus for the cave fishes. (See Greenwood (1976), Roberts and Stewart (1976), and Banister and Bunni (1980) for discussions of this philosophy). So, should the cave and surface fishes be regarded as members of the same species (with specifically adapted local races) or as distinct subspecies or species within the genus Astyanax ? Most authors have uncritically accepted that they are conspecific because of the interfertility. However there are a number of trenchant differences between the epigean and hypogean populations. They differ in fright reaction (Pfeiffer 1977), feeding behaviour (Schemmel 1980), the distribution and density of the taste buds (Schemmel 1980), metabolic rate (Huppop 1986), the neuromasts of the lateral line (Teyke 1990) and in competitive abilities within the cave environment (Wilkens and Hüppop 1986). Although the epigean fishes can survive and breed in darkness (contrary to the evidence of Rasquin and Rosenbloom 1954) they are out-competed by the better adapted cave fish (Wilkens and Hüppop 1986). It is certain that the hypogean fishes could neither compete nor survive on the surface. The genetic distance (as calculated by Nei's D parameter) is also relevant to this discussion. Values for D of 0.142 (Pachon population) and 0.105 (Sabinos population) (Chakraborty and Nei 1974) fall within the ranges for both subspecies (0.004 ‑ 0.351) and species (0.004 ‑ 3.000) and above that for local races (0.000 ‑ 0.049) as given by Nei (1987). A simple reading of the biological species concept (Mayr 1970:12) would confine both surface and cave fishes to the same species as a result of their interfertility. Rosen (1979:275‑278; see also Kottelat (1997:10-20)) has argued however that the biological species concept is worthless as a determiner of relationships since its primary definer, reproductive compatibility, is a primitive (plesiomorphic) attribute of members of a lineage. It therefore has no power to specify relationships within a genealogical framework. In the present case it is obvious that the cave form exhibits a number of autapomorphies (see above). The two forms should therefore be considered as good separate sister species which have not yet attained reproductive isolation.

The taxonomic consequences of this would be: one species of cave‑dwelling fish Astyanax jordani (Hubbs and Innes 1936) with one junior objective synonym, Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs and Innes 1936, and two junior subjective synonyms, Anoptichthys antrobius Alvarez 1946 and Anoptichthys hubbsi Alvarez 1947.

The above discussion is based principally on morphology. Recent work by Richard Borowsky (e.g. Borowsky 1994, 1996; Borowsky and Espinasa 1997; Borowsky and Wilkens 2002; Espinasa and Borowsky 2000, 2001), indicates that there may have been at least three independent invasions of surface fishes all of which now exhibit similar troglomorphic facies. If this is the case, and we accept that genetic characters are useful, then there should have three different names (see Kottelat (1997) for an excellent discussion of these points). Recently Dowling, Martasian and Jeffery (2002), Strecker, Bernatchez and Wilkens (2003) and Wilkens and Strecker (2003) have also shown that some cave populations are independently derived from surface fishes.

Oliveira et al. (2011) made an extensive ingroup study of the Family Characidae. Their results strongly support a sister group relationship between Astyanax jordani and a group containing Astyanax aeneus, Bramocharax caballeroi and Bramocharax baileyi (Figure below), and explicitally not a sister group relationship with Astyanax mexicanus, which is sister to the four species listed above.

The above discussion was largely written for the first edition of my book (Proudlove 2006) and needs revising in the light of much information discovered in the 14 years since it was writen. However, it is worth empasising that the conclusion of the discussion, that the cave fishes should be called Astyanax jordani, is strongly supported in the two most recent reviews of the these fishes, their habitats and their history (Wilkens and Strecker 2017:70-74 and Elliott 2018:39-44) and in an extensive phylogentic study of the Family Characidae (Oliveira  et al. 2011) - see phylogenetic tree below. There is a very good argument made for naming cryptic, mainly identified by molecular methods, that also applies in abundance to Astyanax jordani - see Delic et al. (2017).

Biological Notes

Here is a different justification for the cave animals being a separate species to the surface fishes.

Abstract              

The most intensively studied cave animal is a characid fish from Mexico, originally described as Anoptichthys jordani. Two other species of Anoptichthys are synonyms of Anoptichthys jordani, and the genus Anoptichthys is an synonym of Astyanax. For many years the cave fishes have been considered to be conspecific with Astyanax fasciatus because the cave fishes are interfertile, under some conditions, with surface dwelling Astyanax fasciatus. In fact the cave and surface fishes are not interfertile under most, natural, conditions and are reproductively isolated by competitive exclusion. Under the tenets of the Biological Species Concept the cave fish are a separate species. Under the Phylogenetic Species Concept they are also separate species as they possess a significant number of unique character states. Since they are good species under these two species concepts they are also good species under the Evolutionary Species Concept. The cave fishes are a separate species Astyanax jordani.

Introduction     

The cave-dwelling characid from Mexico is well known. It has received more study than any other cave animal and is available in pet stores and aquaria the world over. The reasons for this prominence include the facts that it is easy to breed in captivity and interfertile with the sympatric Astyanax fasciatus. These properties allow very detailed studies, and in particular genetical ones, to be made easily. A large number of publications have resulted from these studies (see Reddell, 1981 and Wilkens, 1988 for bibliographies) but there has been great confusion as to the name and status of the animal. The following discussion outlines the problem and poses a definitive solution.

The first population to be discovered, in La Cueva Chica, was described by Hubbs and Innes (1936) as a new genus and species, Anoptichthys jordani. In the following ten years two other populations were discovered in La Cueva de El Pachon and La Cueva de Los Sabinos. Alvarez (1946, 1947) included them in the genus Anoptichthys as Anoptichthys antrobius and Anoptichthys hubbsi respectively.  It is now known that the cave fishes are widespread, Mitchell et al., (1977) document 29 populations (see also Reddell, 1981:238‑243, 325). The recognition of the original three populations as separate species is no longer supportable. The character states used to separate the three (details of the subdivision of the suborbital bones) is likely to be highly variable among the 29 known populations, principally because all have severe modification of the eye area as a result of eye loss during regressive evolution. In their original description of Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs and Innes (1936) recognised that: "Anoptichthys agrees with the genus and subgenus Astyanax in all apparent characters other than those associated with blindness and subterranean life". The epigean Astyanax fasciatus (previously thought to be Astyanax mexicanus, see Miller and Smith (1986) for details) and the hypogean Anoptichthys jordani are not only very similar in general morphology, but they possess the same (or very similar) karyotype (Kirby, Thompson, and Hubbs, 1977) and are interfertile under some conditions. These features, plus the sympatric distribution, provide strong evidence that Anoptichthys jordani is very closely related to, and in all probability, directly evolved from, Astyanax fasciatus. There is therefore no reason for recognising a distinct genus for the cave fishes. (See Greenwood (1976), Roberts and Stewart (1976), and Banister and Bunni (1980) for discussions of this philosophy). Since Alvarez’ species were informally synonymised with Anoptichthys jordani, and since workers dropped the genus Anoptichthys, informally considering it a junior synonym of Astyanax, the cave fishes have been most commonly referred to as the “cave form” of Astyanax mexicanus (earlier works) or A. fasciatus (more recent works). This was done on a tacit, but incorrect, acceptance of one of the tenets of the Biological Species Concept. In this paper I demonstrate that under this concept, and one other, the cave fishes are a different species from the surface fishes. The rationale for the present work is set out by Mayden and Wood (1995:110), “When entities subsumed under one binomial are actually behaving as distinct evolutionary entities, we perform no service to them nor to the biological community by treating them as a single species”.

Considering these animals as separate species is not unprecedented. Reddell (1981: 238-243), Miller and Smith (1986) and Espinosa Perez et al. (1993), in a checklist of Mexican fishes, all called the cave fish Astyanax jordani. Eschmeyer et al. (1998:816) consider that Anoptichthys jordani is valid as Astyanax jordani.

Cave populations and their relationships.

Troglomorphic Astyanax are now known from at least 29 locations in the Sierra de El Abra, Sierra de Guatemala and other areas in San Luis Potosi, Mexico (Fig. 1) (Mitchell et al., 1977). It has been suggested, on genetic grounds, that the populations vary in phylogenetic age, with some populations evolving in caves for longer than others (Wilkens, 1988). In particular, the isolated Micos population is thought to be considerably younger than most of the Sierra de El Abra populations.  Borowsky and Espinasa (1997) provide DNA evidence for three separate evolutionary lines: “Northern” (Sierra de Guatemala and Nicolas Perez), “Southern” (Sierra de El Abra), and “Micos” (Fig. 2). Espinasa and Borowsky (2001) demonstrate that the southern line, which contains the type localities of all three Anoptichthys species,  derives from  common ancestral stock, most likely due to a single colonisation event (Fig. 3). The southern population is therefore probably a single species, separate from the other two lineages. If further work confirms that the other lineages are distinct they will require descriptions and names. The present discussion relates only to the southern populations.

Species concepts

There has recently been much interest in species concepts (reviews and discussion in Kimbel and Martin 1993, Nielsen 1995, Claridge et al. 1997, Kottelat 1997, Mayden 1999 and Wheeler and Meier 2000). Although there is still much disagreement about the “best” concept (see e.g. the debate in Wheeler and Meier 2000) Mayden (1997, 1999) has provided a significant step forward with his division of species concepts into primary and secondary. The primary, non-operational, concept is the Evolutionary Species Concept (ESC; “An evolutionary species is an entity composed of organisms that maintains its identity from other such entities through time and over space and that has its own independent evolutionary fate and historical tendencies.” (Wiley and Mayden 2000a:73)). All other concepts (Mayden (1997) discusses 25) are considered as secondary, operational, concepts. Each of these attempts to discover biodiversity in a different way. Many overlap in their methods and results whereas many others are very different in methods and results. Until this breakthrough, positions on concepts were often very entrenched to one particular concept. Mayden has shown us that each of the secondary concepts is valuable in its own right. Each will discover a portion of the total biodiversity and, used together under the over-arching primary concept, will reveal the maximum information about global biodiversity. Here I use two of the secondary concepts, the Biological Species Concept (BSC) and one version of the Phylogenetic Species Concept (PSC) to show that the cave and surface fishes are separate species.

Biological Species Concept. - “I define biological species as groups of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups.” (Mayr 2000:17).

It is undoubtedly true that the cave fishes and surface fishes can interbreed under laboratory conditions (reference) and that F1, F2 and backcross individuals can be obtained (Wilkens 1988). It is also true that under certain conditions in the wild they can interbreed. The laboratory crosses tell us nothing as they are artificial. Interbreeding in the wild takes place only under very unusual conditions. Of 29 known sites interbreeding has only been observed in nine and of these only in three is it of significant magnitude (Mitchell et al. 1977:72-76). Under the most usual cave conditions of food scarcity  the two forms cannot interbreed (Wilkens, 1988:344-347). Where surface fishes are found with cave fishes the former are so out-competed for food that they starve. In this condition they cannot produce eggs or sperm and so cannot breed. A further factor impedes successful breeding. There is more yolk in cave fish eggs (Huppop and Wilkens, 1991) and homozygous cave fish eggs are have a competitive advantage over heterozygous (cave x surface) eggs (Wilkens 1988:346). In the terms of the BCS this a pre-zygotic isolating mechanism driven by ecology and behaviour. Under unusual cave conditions where there is plenty of food the surface fishes can obtain enough and in La Cueva Chica, which has a large bat roost, the two fishes do interbreed and the Chica fish population is a hybrid one (Mitchell et al. 1977; Romero 1983). Some hybridisation has occurred in La Cueva de El Pachon (Langecker et al. 1991). In Sotano de Yerbaniz, which is food poor,  large numbers of surface fishes enter the cave yet there is a very small number of hybrids (Mitchell et al. 1977:74). It is notable that the probably unrelated Micos fish  “are already reproductively isolated from their epigean neighbours even though they occupy only an intermediate stage with respect to the constructive adaptations developed in phylogenetically old cave forms.” (Wilkens, 1988:346). A prime tenet of the BSC is that groups which are reproductively isolated from one another are separate species. (This is also the prime tenet of the Hennigian Species Concept, see Mayden (1997) and principally Meier and Willmann 2000)). Most cave fishes are isolated from surface fishes by competitive isolation (the competitive-exclusion principle of Mayr 1970:43-44) and therefore the cave and surface fishes are not members of the same species under the BSC. They are not forms a polymorphic species because such species, despite often great morphological variability, breed freely at contact zones (Mayr, 1970:17). They are not subspecies of A. fasciatus because subspecies are not reproductively isolated from other subspecies.

Metrical measures of similarity/difference can also be applied to the BSC where they measure “reproductive isolation and evolutionary independence” (Mayden 1997:399; the “Genetic Species Concept”). Two of these types of measure are available. Avise and Selander (1972) used electrophoresis to study allozyme variation in epigean and hypogean fishes. They use the data to calculate Rogers’ coefficient of genetic similarity (their Table 6). Similarity values for conspecific populations tend to lie in the high 0.80s and 0.90s with genetic similarity among congeneric species  usually much lower, although there is overlap. Avise and Selander (1972) provide values for various congeneric species (0.61, 0.76, 0.77, 0.32, 0.21, 0.50), and various conspecific populations (0.97, 0.98, 0.88, 0.95, 0.97, 0.75, 0.89). Their calculation for the similarity between cave and surface fishes is 0.82. While this is not so low as the congeneric species listed, it is intermediate between these values and the predominant 0.90s of the conspecifics. It is as we would expect of species in the process of separation. This intermediate value does not unequivocally support the stance, often stated (e.g. Wilkens 1988:273, Romero 1983), that cave and surface fish are conspecific. Chakraborty and Nei (1974) calculated Nei’s standard genetic distance (Nei's D parameter) between epigean and hypogean fishes. Values for D of 0.142 (Pachon population) and 0.105 (Sabinos population) fall within the ranges for both subspecies (0.004 ‑ 0.351) and species (0.004 ‑ 3.000) and significantly above that for local races (0.000 ‑ 0.049) as given by Nei (1987:241-242). Neither of these measures provide unequivocal support for the fishes being separate species since they are intermediate between fully separated species and populations within a species. However we are sure that the cave fishes evolved from the surface fishes and these values show us that this process is either still occurring or only recently stopped. They certainly are not supportive of a single, genetically unified species.

Interfertility under some, rather unusual and atypical,  conditions (i.e. absence of total reproductive isolation) has long been used to confine the two type of fishes into one species. The above discussion should finally lay to rest this misguided notion. Wiley and Mayden (2000b:157-158) put the case in context: “As ichthyologists, we know of no recently evolved and closely related species of North American freshwater fish that is 100% reproductively isolated from its sister species. What do we mean by closely related ? We mean species pairs that are young enough and whose biogeographic relationships are such that there is no reason to think that there is an extinct sister species left out of the analysis ... We can produce F1 hybrids if we have a mind to do so.”

Phylogenetic Species Concept. - There are a number of different formulations of the PSC. Mayden (1997) identifies three and two are discussed in Wheeler and Meier (2000). Here I use the definition of Wheeler and Platnick (2000) which is also that of Cracraft (1997), both of which stem from the studies and thoughts of Eldredge and Cracraft (1980) and Nelson and Platnick (1981). This is the PSC1 of Mayden (1997).

“We define species as the smallest aggregation of (sexual) populations or (asexual) lineages diagnosable by a unique combination of character states.” (Wheeler and Platnick 2000:58)

The cave fishes have a significant number of very distinctive and diagnosable character states (Table 1). They are quite clearly a different species from the surface fishes under this version of the PSC.

Evolutionary Species Concept. -

                The cave fishes clearly “maintain their identity” and have their own “independent evolutionary fate” within the caves of central Mexico. They are therefore good Evolutionary Species.

Discussion

There is debate among those studying speciation about the extinction of ancestors at a speciation event. One view (e.g. Meier and Willmannn, 2000) is that ancestors, also called stem species, must become extinct when species evolve from them. The present case provides strong, empirical, evidence that this cannot be the case. The presence of an evolved, or evolving, cave species (Astyanax jordani), over a small part of the range of the species it is evolved, or evolving, from (Astyanax fasciatus), can in no way affect the realness of the species Astyanax fasciatus. It exists as a perfectly good species, totally unaltered over the majority of its range, despite the evolution of a new species from it in a part of Mexico.

Why is the “cave form” not an evolutionarily significant unit (ESU) of Astyanax fasciatus ? There is no consensus on the definition of an ESU (see Cracraft 1997:332-335 for discussion) and Cracraft suggests that “its objective use is virtually precluded” because of this. The prime reason for not recognising the cave fishes an ESU of Astyanax fasciatus is that any group which is sufficiently distinct to be considered as ESU is, prima facie, a distinct species under at least the PSC. There is no reason to subdivide “species” into smaller units if it can be shown that such “species” consists of groups which have an “independent evolutionary fate”. The PSC and ESC show us how to determine species and there is no justification for defining sub- or infra- specific groupings.

Taxonomic consequences

The final taxonomic position is: one species of cave‑dwelling fish Astyanax jordani (Hubbs and Innes, 1936) with one junior objective synonym, Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs and Innes, 1936, and two junior subjective synonyms, Anoptichthys antrobius Alvarez, 1946 and Anoptichthys hubbsi Alvarez, 1947. The genus Anoptichthys Hubbs and Innes, 1936 is a synonym of Astyanax Baird and Girard, 1854.

Conservation implications

There is little doubt that subpopulations exist. Mitchell et al. (1977:76-79) document that animals from eight caves are discreet when subject to a morphometric analysis. The recognition of Astyanax  jordani as separate from Astyanax fasciatus does not preclude the existence of subpopulations (demes) within the jordani clade. Continued genetic studies, or  detailed morphological analysis, will reveal these. Once revealed we need to determine the relevant level of protection.

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Kottelat, M. 1997. European freshwater fishes. An heuristic checklist of the freshwater fishes of Europe (exclusive of former USSR) with an introduction for non-systematists and comments on nomenclature and conservation. Biologia, Bratislava 52/Suppl. 5:1-271.

Langecker, T.G., H. Wilkens and P. Junge. 1991. Introgressive hybridisation in the Pachon cave population of Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei: Characidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters 2:209-212.

Mayden, R. 1997. A hierarchy of species concepts: the denouement in the saga of the species problem, p. 381-424. In: Species: The units of biodiversity. The Systematics Assoc. Spec. Vol. Ser. 54. Claridge, M.F., H.A. Dawah and M.R. Wilson (eds.).

Mayden R. 1999. Consilience and a hierarchy of species concepts: Advances toward closure on the species puzzle. J. Nematol. 31:95-116.

Mayden, R. and R.M. Wood. 1995. Systematics, species concepts and the evolutionary significant unit in biodiversity and conservation biology. Amer. Fish. Soc. Symp. 17:58-113.

Mayr, E. 1970. Populations, species and evolution. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, USA.

Mayr, E. 2000. The Biological Species Concept, p. 17-29. In: Species concepts and phylogenetic theory: A debate. Columbia University Press, New York, USA. Wheeler, Q.D. and R. Meier (eds.).

Meier, R. and R. Willmannn. 2000. The Hennigian species concept, p. 30-43. In: Species concepts and phylogenetic theory: A debate. Columbia University Press, New York, USA. Wheeler, Q.D. and R. Meier (eds.).

Miller, R.R. and M.L. Smith. 1986. Origin and geography of the fishes of central Mexico, p. 487-517. In: The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. Hocutt, H.C. and E.O. Wiley (eds.).

Mitchell, R.W., W.H. Russell and W.R. Elliott. 1977. Mexican eyeless characin fishes, genus Astyanax: Environment, distribution and evolution. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 12:1-89.

Nielsen, J.L. 1995. Evolution and the aquatic ecosystem: defining unique units in population conservation. Amer. Fish. Soc. Symp. 17, Bethesda, Maryland.

Nei, M. 1987. Molecular evolutionary genetics. Columbia University Press, New York.

Nelson G. and N.I. Platnick 1981. Systematics and biogeography: cladistics and vicariance. Columbia University Press, New York.

Parzefall, J. 1983. Field observations in epigean and cave populations of the Mexican characid Astyanax mexicanus (Pisces, Characidae). Mem. Biospeol. 10:171-176.

Parzefall, J. 1985. On the heredity of behaviour patterns in cave animals and their epigean relatives. Bull. Nat. Spel. Soc. 47:128-135.

Reddell, J.R. 1981. A review of the cavernicole fauna of Mexico, Guatemala and Belize. Texas Mem. Mus. Bull. 27:1-327.

Roberts, T.R.and D.J. Stewart. 1976. An ecological and systematic survey of fishes in the rapids of the lower Zaire or Congo river. Bull. Mus. Comp.  Zool., Harvard 147:239-317.

Romero, A. 1983. Introgressive hybridisation in the Astyanax fasciatus (Pisces: Characidae) population at La Cueva Chica. Nat. Speleol. Soc. Bull. 45:81-85.

Rose, F.L. and R.W. Mitchell. 1982. Comparative lipid values of epigean and cave-adapted Astyanax. Southwest. Nat. 27:357-358.

Schemmel, C. 1980. Studies on the genetics of feeding behaviour in the cave fish Astyanax mexicanus f. anoptichthys. An example of apparent monofactorial inheritance by polygenes. Z. Tierpsycol. 53:9-22.

Teyke, T. 1990. Morphological differences in neuromasts of the blind cave fish Astyanax hubbsi and the sighted river fish Astyanax mexicanus. Brain, Behav. Evol. 35:23-30.

Wheeler, Q.D. and R. Meier. 2000. Species concepts and phylogenetic theory: A debate. Columbia University Press, New York, USA.

Wheeler, Q.D. and N.L. Platnick. 2000. The Phylogenetic Species Concept (sensu Wheeler and Platnick), p. 55-69. In: Species concepts and phylogenetic theory: A debate. Columbia University Press, New York, USA. Wheeler, Q.D. and R. Meier (eds.).

Wiley, E.O. and Mayden, R.L. 2000a. The Evolutionary Species Concept, p. 70-89. In: Species concepts and phylogenetic theory: A debate. Columbia University Press, New York, USA. Wheeler, Q.D. and R. Meier (eds.).

Wiley, E.O. and Mayden, R.L.. 2000b. A critique from the evolutionary species concept perspective, p. 146-158. In: Species concepts and phylogenetic theory: A debate. Columbia University Press, New York, USA. Wheeler, Q.D. and R. Meier (eds.).

Wilkens, H. 1988. Evolution and genetics of epigean and cave Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Pisces). Support for the neutral mutation theory. Evol. Biol. 23:271-367.

 

Table 1. Morphological, behavioural, physiological and genetic differences between the surface (epigean) and cave (hypogean) fishes

Character

Character state

  Character state    
  Epigean   Hypogean Populations References
Morphology          
Taste buds mouth and lips only   whole head Pa, Pi, S, Y Schemmel 1980
Neuromast area 50x30x10-6m   80x50x10-6m CS Teyke 1990
Cupula length 42x10-6m   100-300x10-6m CS Teyke 1990
Egg size ~1mm dia.   ~1.1mm dia. Pa, Pi, Y Huppop and Wilkens 1991
Scales present   present but smaller Pa Wilkens 1988
Eyes present   degenerated Pa, S, C Wilkens 1988
Melanin pigment present   reduced Pa, Pi, S, Y Wilkens 1988
Behaviour          
Fright reaction present   reduced C, Pa, Pi Fricke 1988
Feeding 90o to subsrate   45o to subsrate Pa, Pi, S, Y Schemmel 1980
Food finding 20% efficient   80% efficient Pa Huppop 1987
Agressive present   reduced Pa, Mi Burchards, Dolle and Parzefall 1985
Schooling present   absent Pi Parzefall 1983
Circadian rhythm normal   much modified Pa

Erckens and Martin 1982

Erckens and Martin 1982

Physiology          
Fat storage 9% of fresh body mas   37% of fresh body mass Pa Huppop 1988
Lipids 0.32+/-0.14*   1.26+/-0.27* Y Rose and Mitchell 1982
Genetics          
Allozyme Es-2d absent   present C, Pa, S Avise and Selander 1972

* mean lipid to lean dry weight ratio

+ C = La Cueva Chica. CS = Commercial stock. Probably derived from the Chica population. Pa = La Cueva de El Pachon. Pi = El Sotano de Las Piedras. S = La Cueva de los Sabinos. Y = El Sotano de Yerbaniz. (All are from the “southern” population). Mi = La Cueva del Rio Subterraneo (unrelated Micos population)                                                                                                                                                                                                            

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 

 

Conservation Status

[NE]

R (IUCN, 1990), VU A1ac+2c,B1+2c,D2 (IUCN, 1996, 2000). These criteria indicate: (A1ac+2c) that the population has been, or will be, reduced by 20% over the past 10 years (and/or over the next 10 years) as a result of habitat loss or degeneration, (B1+2c) that the area of occupancy is less than 2000 km2 and a severely fragmented population with a decline in extent or quality of habitat, (D2) that the population exists in 5 or less sites. This latter criterion is not valid as the species is known from 31 sites (Mitchell, Russell and Elliott 1977, Elliott 2018). Special Concern (Contreras-Balderas, Almada-Villela, Lozano-Vilano and Garcia-Ramirez 2003).

Museum Holdings

Anoptichthys jordani: BMNH 1973.9.10:20

Anoptichthys hubbsi: BMNH 1951.12.3:14‑17 (Paratypes)

Internet Resources

The 6th Annual Cavefish Meeting was held March 17th-20th 2019. Links to the meeting abstracts will be added a soon as I know them.

The Astyanax research community

Astyanax genome 1

Astyanax genome 2

Astyanax mexicanus 2.0 genome

Astyanax transcriptome

Astyanax developmental gene expresion

Astyanax gene annotations

Association for Mexican Cave Studies

How and why does the cave fish lose its eyes?

Bill Elliott's Astyanax web site

Bill Elliott's publications

Bill Elliott's chapter 1 in "Biology and evolution of the Mexican cavefish" (Keene et al. 2016)

Bill Elliott's chapter 3 in "Biology and evolution of the Mexican cavefish" (Keen et al. 2016)

Key References

This species has been studied in much greater detail than any other subterranean fish, and probably any other subterranean organism. Consequently the literature is very large. Anyone working with this species, or taking a serious interest in it, will need to follow the primary literature which is published across a very wide array of primary scientific journals. Those people starting out in research on Astyanax jordani, and those with a passing interest, will have to read and fully digest all of the major review publications, outlined below, all of which are required initial reading. Only by being fully familiar with these works can it be possible to move onto the primary literature with confidence that all the necessary background is firmly embedded in memory. In chronological order these are:

Mitchell, Russell and Elliott (1977) - Mexican eyeless characin fishes, genus Astyanax: Environment,distribution and evolution

Wilkens (1988) - Evolution and genetics of epigean and cave Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Pisces): support for the neutral mutation theory

Wilkens (1992) - Neutral mutations and evolutionary progress

Jeffery (2001) - Cavefish as a model system in evolutionary developmental biology

Fish (2004) - Karst hydrology of the Sierra de El Abra [Originally a thesis at McMaster University, Fish (1977)]

Wilkens (2005) - Fish

Jeffery (2005) - Evolution of eye degeneration in cavefish: The return of pleiotropy

Protas et al. (2007) - Regressive evolution in the Mexican cave tetra, Astyanax mexicanus

Jeffery (2008) - Emerging model systems in evo-devo: cavefish and microevolution of development

Jeffery (2009) - Regresive evolution in Astyanax cavefish

Jeffery (2009) - Evolution and development in the cavefish Astyanax

Borowsky (2010) - The evolutionary genetics of cave fishes: Convergence, adaptation and plieotropy

Jeffery and Strickler (2010) - Development as an evolutionary process in Astyanax cavefish

Wilkens (2010) - Genes, modules and the evolution of cave fish

Juan, Guzik, Jaume and Cooper (2010) - Evolution in caves: Darwin’s ‘wrecks of ancient life’ in the molecular era

Yamamota and Jeffery (2011) - Blind cavefish

Kish, Bohnsack, Gallina, Kasprick and Kahana (2011) - The eye as an organizer of craniofacial development

Jeffery (2012) - Astyanax mexicanus: A model organism for evolution and adaptation

Wilkens (2012) - Neutral mutations

Trontelj (2012) - Natural selection

Gross (2012) - The complex origin of Astyanax cavefish

Protas and Jeffery (2012) - Evolution and development in cave animals: from fish to crustaceans

Bleckmann, Mogdans and Coombs (2014) - Flow sensing in air and water. Behavioral, neural and engineering principles of operation

Windsor (2014) - Hydrodynamic imaging by blind Mexican cavefish

Niemiller and Soares (2015) - Cave environments 

Keene, Yoshizawa and McGaugh (2016) - Biology and evolution of the Mexican cavefish

Casane and Retaux (2016) - Evolutionary genetics of the cavefish Astyanax mexicanus

Foulkes, Whitmore, Vallone and Bertolucci (2016) - Studying the evolution of the vertebrate circadian clock: The power of fish as comparative models

Wilkens and Strecker (2017) - Evolution in the dark: Darwin's loss without selection

Elliott (2018) - The Astyanax caves of Mexico: Cavefishes of San Luís Potosí, Tamaulipas, and Guerrero

Borowsky (2018) - Primer. Cavefish

Gore, Jeffery, Retaux and Rohner (2018) - Cavefish development

Torres-Paz, Hyacinthe, Pierre and Retaux (2018) - Towards an integrated approach to understand Mexican cavefish evolution

Rohner (2018) - Out of the dark. Cavefish are entering biomedical research

Mogdans (2019) - Sensory ecology of the fish lateral line system: Morphological and physiological adaptations for the perception of hydrodynamic stimuli

Also, not a review, McGaugh et al. (2014) - The cavefish genome reveals candidate genes for eye loss

Also useful, though mostly superceeded by Elliott (2018), are Russell and Raines (1967) and Morris (1989).

Selected bibliography

Hubbs, C.L. and Innes, W.T. Journal Article 1936 The first known blind fish of the family Characidae: A new genus from Mexico
Bridges, W. Journal Article 1940 The blind fish of La Cueva Chica
Gresser, E. B. and Breder, C. M. Journal Article 1940 The histology of the eye of the cave characin, Anoptichthys
Breder, C. M. and Gresser, E. B. Journal Article 1941 Behaviour of Mexican cave characins in reference to light and cave entry
Breder, C. M. and Gresser, E. B. Journal Article 1941 Correlations between structural eye defects and behaviour in the Mexican blind characin
Breder, C. M. and Gresser, E. B. Journal Article 1941 Further studies on the light sensitivity and behaviour of the Mexican blind characins
Breder, C. M. Journal Article 1942 Descriptive ecology of La Cueva Chica, with especial reference to the blind fish, Anoptichthys
Breder, C. M. Journal Article 1943 Apparent changes in phenotypic ratios of the characins at the type locality of Anptichthys jordani Hubbs and Innes
Breder, C. M. Journal Article 1943 Problems in the behaviour and evolution of a species of blind cave fish
Osorio Tafall, B. F. Journal Article 1943 Observaciones sobra la fauna aquatica de las Cuevas de la region de Valles, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)
Breder, C. M. Journal Article 1944 Ocular anatomy and light sensitivity studies on the blind fish Cueva de Los Sabinos, Mexico
Alvarez, J. Journal Article 1946 Revision del genero Anoptichthys con descripcion de una especie nueva (Pisc., Characidae)
Alvarez, J. Journal Article 1947 Descripcion de Anoptichthys hubbsi caracindo ciego de la Cueva de Los Sabinos, S.L.P
Breder, C. M. and Rasquin, P. Journal Article 1947 Comparative studies on the light sensitivity of blind characins from a series of Mexican caves
Breder, C. M. and Rasquin, P. Journal Article 1947 Evidence for the lack of a growth principle in the optic cyst of the Mexican cave fish
Schlagel, S. R. and Breder, C. M. Journal Article 1947 A study of the oxygen consumption of blind and eyed cave characins in light and in darkness
Rasquin, P. Journal Article 1949 The influence of light and darkness on thyroid and pituitary activity of the characin Astyanax mexicanus and its cave derivatives
Luling, K. H. Journal Article 1953 Die Heimat und die Entdeckng unseres Blindfisches Anoptichthys jordani
Luling, K. H. Journal Article 1953 Uber das Sehen jugendlicher Anptichthys jordani (Hubbs und Innes)
Luling, K. H. Journal Article 1953 Uber die fortschreitende Augendegenerations des Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs und Innes (Characidae)
Stefanelli, A. Journal Article 1954 The differentiation of optic lobe neurones in a blind cave teleost
Rasquin, P. and Rosenbloom, L. Journal Article 1954 Endocrine imbalance and tissue hyperplasia in teleosts maintained in darkness
Thines, G. Journal Article 1954 Etude comparative de la photosensibilite des poissons aveugles Caecobarbus geertsii Blgr et Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs et Innes
Luling, K. H. Journal Article 1954 Untersuchungen am Blindfisch Anoptichtys jordani Hubbs und Innes (Characidae). I Einige Beobachtungen uber das Verhalten des Blindfisches Anoptichthys jordani beim Laichen
Luling, K. H. Journal Article 1954 Untersuchungen am Blindfisch Anoptichtys jordani Hubbs und Innes (Characidae). II Beobachtungen und Experimente an Anoptichthys jordani zur Prufung der Einstellung zum Futter, zumlicht und zur Wassertubulenze
Stefanelli, A. Journal Article 1954 It tetto ottico di Pesci ciechi cavernicoli nei riguardi del differenziamento specifico dei neuroni
Luling, K. H. Journal Article 1955 Zur Augenreduktion des aus Mexikanischen Hohlen stammenden blinden Salmlers Anoptichthys jordani (Hubbs und Innes)
Luling, K. H. Journal Article 1955 Untersuchungen am Blindfische Anoptichthys jordani, Hubbs und Innes (Characidae). III Vergleichende anatomisch-histologische studien an den Augen des Anoptichthys jordani
Sadoglu, P. Journal Article 1956 A preliminary report on the genetics of the Mexican cave characin
Thines, G. and Kahling, J. Journal Article 1957 Untersuchungen uber die Farbempfindlichkeit des Hohlenfisches Anoptichthys jordani (Characidae)
Sadoglu, P. Journal Article 1957 A Mendelian gene for albinism in natural cave fish
Sadoglu, P. Journal Article 1957 Mendelian inheritance in the hybrids between the Mexican blind cave fishes and their overground ancestors
Cahn, P. H. Journal Article 1958 Comparative optic development in Astyanax mexicanus and in two of its blind cave derivatives
Grobbel, G. and Hahn, G. Journal Article 1958 Morphologie und Histologie der Seitenorgane des augenlosen Hohlenfisches Anoptichthys jordani im Vergleich zu anderen Teleosteern
Kahling, J. Journal Article 1961 Untersuchungen uber den Lichtsinn und dessen Lokalisation bei dem Hohlenfisch Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs und Innes (Characidae)
Luling, K. H. Journal Article 1962 Untersuchungen am Blindfisch Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs und Innes (Characidae). IV Bemerkungen zur Okologie und Tiergeographie
Burgers, A. C. J., Bennink, P. J. H. and van Oordt, G. J. Journal Article 1963 Investigations into the regulation of the pigmentary system in the blind Mexican cave fish Anoptichthys jordani
Franck, A. Journal Article 1964 Vergleichende Untersuchungen am Hohlebfisch Anoptichthys antrobius und seinem oberirdischen Vorfahren Astyanax mexicanus
Boucquey, C., Thines, G. and Van Der Borght, C. Book Section 1965 Etude compartive de la capacite photopathique et de l'activite chex les poisson cavenicole Anoptichthys antrobius chez la forme epigee ancestrale Astyanax mexicanus,et chez les hybrides F1 (Astyanax x Anoptichthys) et F2
Thines, G., Wolff-Van Ermengem, F., Boucquey, C. and Soffie, M. Journal Article 1965 Etude comparative de l'activite du poisson cavernicole Anoptichthys antrobius Alvarez, et de son ancetre epige Astyanax mexicanus (Filippi)
Cavicchioli, G. and Guarnieri, P. Journal Article 1966 Nota preliminari su gli organi di senso cutanei della testa e del corpo di un pesce cavernicolo Anoptichthys jordani (Cypriniformes, Characidae)
Reed, M. Journal Article 1966 Raising and breeding the blind cave characin
Peters, N. and Peters, G. Journal Article 1966 Das Auge zweier Hohlenformen von Astyanax mexicanus Filippi (Characidae, Pisces)
Carmignani, M. P. A. Journal Article 1966 Distributuzione dei follicoli tiroidei lungo la regione branchiale nel teleosteo cieco Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs e Innes
Thines, G., Soffie, M. and Vandenbussche, E. Journal Article 1966 Analyse du comportement alimentaire du poisson cavernicole aveugle Anoptichthys Gen. et d'hybrides F1 (Astyanax x Anoptichthys) et F2
Sadoglu, P. Journal Article 1967 The selective value of eye and pigment loss in Mexican cave fish
Schemmel, C. Journal Article 1967 Vergleichende Untersuchungen an den Hautsinnesorganen ober- und unterirdisch lebender Astyanax-Formen. Ein Beitrag zur evolution der Cavernicolen
Walters, V. and Liu, R. K. Book Section 1967 Hydrodynamics of navigation by fishes in terms of the mucus-water "interface"
Pfeiffer, W. Journal Article 1967 Die Korrelation von Augengrosse und Mittelherngrosse bei Hybriden aus Astyanax x Aoptichthys (Characidae, Pisces)
Pfeiffer, W. Journal Article 1967 Die Korrelation von Korperlange, Augen-, Linsen, und Papillengrosse bei Hybriden aus Astyanax, Anoptichthys (Characidae, Pisces)
Popper, A. N. and Tavolga, W. N. Journal Article 1967 Hearing thresholds in the Mexican blind cavefish
Mattheij, J. A. Journal Article 1968 The cell types in the adenohypophysis of the blind Maexican cave fish Anoptichthys jordani (Hubbs and Innes)
Mattheij, J. A. Journal Article 1968 The ACTH cells in the adenohypophysis of the Mexican cave fish Anoptichthys jordani, as identified by metopirone (SU 4885) treatment
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1968 Beitrag zur Degeneration des Auges bei Cavernicolen, Genzahl und Manifestationsart (Untersuchungen an mexikanischen Hohlenfischen)
Carmignani, M. P. A. Journal Article 1968 Morfologia ed attivita neurosecretoria del nucleo proottico e del nucleo paraipofisario nel teleosteo cieco Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs e Innes
Sadoglu, P. and McKee, A. Journal Article 1969 A second gene that affects eye and body colour in Mexican blind cave fish
Mattheij, J. A. Journal Article 1969 The thyrotropin secreting basophils in the adenohypophysis of Anoptichthys jordani
Mattheij, J. A. and Sprangers, J. A. P. Journal Article 1969 The site of prolactin secretion in the adenohypophysis of the stenohaline teleost Anoptichthys jordani and the effects of this hormone on mucous cells
Weiss, B. A. Journal Article 1969 Sonic sensitivity of blind cave fish (Anoptichthys jordani)
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1970 Beitrage zur Degenerations des Melaninpigments bei cavernicolen Sippen des Astyanax mexicanus (Filippi) (Characidae, Pisces)
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1970 Der Bau des Auges cavernicolen Sippen von Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Pisces). Beitrag zur Problematik degenerativer Evolutionsprozesse
Mattheij, J. A. Journal Article 1970 The function of the basophilic cells in the mesoadenohypophysis of the blind cave fish, Anoptichthys jordani
Mattheij, J. A. Journal Article 1970 The gonadotrophic cells in the adenohypophysis of the blind Mexican cave fish Anoptichthys jordani
Weiss, B. and Martini, J. Journal Article 1970 Lateral line sensitivity in the blind cave fish (Anoptichthys jordani)
Whitt, G. S. and Maeda, F. S. Journal Article 1970 Lactate dehydrogenase gene function in the blind cave fish, Anoptichthys jordani, and other characins
Gertychowa, R. Journal Article 1970 Studies on the ethology and space orientation of the blind cave fish Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs et Innes 1936 (Characidae)
Popper, A. N. Journal Article 1970 Auditory capacities of the Mexican blind cave fish (Astyanax jordani) and its eyed ancestor (Astyanax mexicanus)
Gertychowa, R. Journal Article 1970 The blind fish of Cueva Chica
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1970 Beitrag zur Degeneration des Auges bei Cavernicolen. Genzhal und Manifestationsart, Untersuchungen an Mexikanischen Hohlenfischen
Zaccone, G. Journal Article 1971 Histomorphological and histochemical study of the ultimobranchial body of the blind teleost Anoptichthys jordani
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1971 Genetic interpretation of regressive evolutionary processes: Studies on hybrid eyes of two Astyanax cave populations (Characidae, Pisces)
Wiley, S. and Mitchell, R. W. Book 1971 A bibliography of the Mexican eyeless characin fishes of the genus Astyanax. Preliminary compilation
Wiley, S. and Mitchell, R. W. Book Section 1971 A bibliography of the Mexican eyeless characib fishes of the genus Astyanax
Popper, A. N. Journal Article 1971 The morphology of the Weberian ossicles of two species of the genus Astyanax
Gertychowa, R. Journal Article 1971 Heliotaktyzm mlodych rybek jaskiniowych Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs et Innes
Thines, G. and Wissocq, N. Journal Article 1972 Etude comparee du comportement alimentaire de deux poissons cavenicoles (Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs et Innes et Ceacobarbus geertsii Blgr)
Zaccone, G. Journal Article 1972 Comparative histochemical investigations on the mucous cells of the branchial epithelium of Mugil cephalus and Anoptichthys jordani
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1972 Uber das phylogenetische Alter von Hohlentieren
Wilkens, H. and Burns, R. J. Journal Article 1972 A new Anoptichthys cave population (Characidae, Pisces)
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1972 Uber Praadaptionen fur das Holhlenleben, untersucht am Laichverhalten ober- und unterirdischer Populationen des Astyanax mexicanus (Pisces)
Avise, J. C. and Selander, R. K. Journal Article 1972 Evolutionary genetics of cave-dwelling fishes of the genus Astyanax
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1972 Zur phylogenetischen Ruckbildung des Auges Cavernicler. Untersuchungen an Anoptichthys jordani (= Astyanax mexicanus), Characidae, Pisces
Voneida, T. J. Journal Article 1973 A comparative study of retino-tectal projections in the blind cave characin, Astyanax hubbsi, and its sighted ancestor Astyanax mexicanus
Zeitlin, S. M. Journal Article 1973 Hormonal induction of ovulation and spawning in the blind cave fish, Anoptichthys jordani with the use of human chorionic gonadotropin
Zeitlin, S. M. and McDevitt, D. S. Journal Article 1973 Flourescent antibody study of the developing lens of the blind cave fish
Schemmel, C. Journal Article 1973 Les organes sensoriels cutanes du genre Astyanax (Pisces, Characidae) chez les formes occupant des biotopes souterraines
Mitchell, R. W. Book Section 1973 Introgression between the Mexican eyeless characin fishes and their epigean ancestors
Yasuda, K. Journal Article 1973 Comparative studies on the swimming behaviour of the blind cave fish and the goldfish
Durand, J. P. Journal Article 1973 Aspects ultrastructuraux des mechanismes de la rudimentation retinienne chez l'Anoptichthys adulte forme cavernicole aveugle de l'Astyanax mexicanus (Caracidae, Pisces)
Thines, G. and LeGrain, J. M. Journal Article 1973 Effets de la substance d'alarme sur le comportement des poissons cavernicoles Anoptichthys jordani (Characidae) et Caecobarbus geertsii (Cyprinidae)
Chakraborty, R. and Nei, M. Journal Article 1974 Dynamics of gene differentiation between incompletely isolated populations of unequal size
Schemmel, C. Journal Article 1974 Ist die cavernicole Micos-population von Astyanax mexicanus (Characidae, Pisces) hybriden ursprungs ?
Schemmel, C. Journal Article 1974 Genetische Untersuchungen zur Evolution des Geschmacksapparates bei cavernicolen Fischen
Sligar, C. Journal Article 1974 An investigation of tectal efferents in the blind cave fish, A. hubbsi
Sadoglu, P. Book Section 1975 Genetic paths leading to blindness in Astyanax mexicanus
Peters, N., Scholl, A. and Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1975 Der Micos-Fisch, Hohlenfisch in statu nascendi oder Bastard ?Ein Beitrag zur Evolution der Hohlentiere
Omura, Y. Journal Article 1975 Influence of light and darkness on the ultrastructure of the pineal organ in the blind cave fish, Astyanax mexicanus
Erckens, W. and Weber, F. Journal Article 1976 Rudiments of an ability for time measurement in the cavernicolous fish Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs and Innes (Pisces, Characidae)
Herwig, H. J. Journal Article 1976 Ultrastructural investigations on the pineal organ of a cave fish, Anoptichthys jordani and its ancestor, Astyanax mexicanus
Herwig, H. J. Journal Article 1976 Comparative ultrastructural investigations on the pineal organ of the blind cave fish, Anoptichthys jordani and its ancestor, the eyed rive fish, Astyanax mexicanus
Voneida, T. J. and Sligar, C. Journal Article 1976 A comparative neuroanatomic study of retinal projections in two fishes: Astyanax hubbsi (the blind cave fish) and Astyanax mexicanus
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1976 Genetic and phenotypic variability in cave animals. Studies on phylogenetically young cave populations of Astyanax mexicanus (Filippi) (Characidae, Pisces)
Sligar, C. and Voneida, T. J. Journal Article 1976 Tectal efferents in the blind cave fish Asyanax hubbsi
Durand, J. P. Journal Article 1976 Rudimentation des yeux chez les poissons et urodeles souterraines
Kirby, R. F., Thompson, K. W. and Hubbs, C. Journal Article 1977 Karyotypic similarities between the Mexican and blind tetras
Zaccone, G. Journal Article 1977 Histology, innervation, and histochemistry of the UB [Ultimobranchial] gland in the Mexican cave fish Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs et Innes (Teleostei, Characidae)
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1977 Die Rudimenation des Rumpfkanals bei kavernicolen Populationen des Astyanax (Characidae, Pisces)
Mitchell, R.W., Russell, W.H. and Elliott, W.R. Journal Article 1977 Mexican eyeless characin fishes, genus Astyanax: Environment,distribution and evolution
Yew, D. T. and Yoshihara, H. M. Journal Article 1977 An ultrastructural study of the retina of the blind cave fish Astyanax hubbusi (sic)
Thines, G. and Weyers, M. Journal Article 1978 Responses locomotrices du poisson cavernicole Astyanax jordani (Pisces, Characidae) a des signaux periodiques et aperiodiques de lumiere et de temperature
Durand, J. P. Journal Article 1978 Phenomenes de convergences tissulaires et cytologiques, lies aux processus degeneratifs qui affectent l'oeil chez deux teleoteens cavericoles Asytyanax (Anoptichthys) mexicanus (Characidae) et Lucifuga (Stygicola) dentatus (Ophidiidae)
Durand, J. P. Journal Article 1979 Aspects ultrastructuraux des mechanismes de la rudimentation retinienne chez l'Anoptichthys adult, forme cavernicole aveugle de l'Astyanax mexicanus (Characidae, Pisces)
Sadoglu, P. Journal Article 1979 A breeding method for blind Astyanax mexicanus based on annual spawning patterns
Wilkens, H., Peters, H. and Schemmel, C. Journal Article 1979 Gesetzmassigkeiten der regressiven Evolution
Woodhead, A. D. and Achey, P. M. Journal Article 1979 Photoreactivating enzyme in the blind cave fish, Anoptichthys jordani
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1980 Prinzipien der Manifestation polygener Systeme
Weissert, R. Book Section 1980 Formunterscheidung durch einer blinden Hohlenfisch (Anoptichthys jordani, Hubbs et Innes)
Schemmel, C. Journal Article 1980 Studies on the genetics of feeding behaviour in the cave fish Astyanax mexicanus f. Anoptichthys. An example of apparent monofactorial inheritance by polygenes
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1980 Zur Problematik der Rudimentation, untersucht an der Ontogenie des Auges von Hohlenfischen (Astyanax mexicanus)
Quinn, T. P. Journal Article 1980 Locomotor responses of juvenile blind cavefish, Astyanax jordani, to the odors of conspecifics
Reddell, J. R. Book 1981 A review of the cavernicole fauna of Mexico, Guatemala and Belize
Herwig, H. J. Thesis 1981 The pineal organ. An ultrastructural and biochemical study on the pineal organ of Hemigrammus caudovittatus and other closely related characid fish with special reference to the Mexican blind cave fish Astyanax mexicanus
Weissert, R. and Campenhausen, C. Journal Article 1981 Discrimination between stationary objects by the blind cave fish Anoptichthys jordani (Characidae)
Campenhausen, C., Riess, I. and Weissert, R. Journal Article 1981 Detection of stationary objects by blind cave fish Anoptichthys jordani (Characidae)
Erckens, W. and Martin, W. Journal Article 1982 Exogenous and endogenous control of swimming activity in Astyanax mexicanus (Characidae, Pisces) by direct light response and by circadian oscillator. I Analyses of the time control system of an epigean river population
Erckens, W. and Martin, W. Journal Article 1982 Exogenous and endogenous control of swimming activity in Astyanax mexicanus (Characidae, Pisces) by direct light response and by a circadian oscillator. II Features of time controled behaviour of a cave population and their comparison to an ancestral epig
Tabata, M. Journal Article 1982 Persistence of pineal photosensory function in blind cave fish, Astyanax mexicanus
Rose, F. L. and Mitchell, R. W. Journal Article 1982 Comparative lipid values of epigean and cave adapted Astyanax
Lamprecht, G. and Weber, F. Book Section 1982 A test for the biological significance of circadian clocks: Evolutionary regression of the time measuring ability in cavernicolous animals
Jankowska, M. and Thines, G. Journal Article 1982 Etude comparative de la densite de groupes de poissons cavernicoles et epigee (Characidae, Cyprinidae, Clariidae)
Zilles, K., Tillmann, B. and Bennemann, R. Journal Article 1983 The development of the eye in Astyanax mexicanus (Characidae,Pisces), its blind cave derivative, Anoptichthys jordani (Characidae, Pisces, and their crossbreeds. A scanning and transmission electron microscopic study
Romero, A. Journal Article 1983 Introgressive hybridisation in the Astyanax fasciatus (Pisces, Characidae) population at La Cueva Chica
Parzefall, J. Journal Article 1983 Field observations in epigean and cave populations of the Mexican characid Astyanax mexcanus (Pisces, Characidae)
Voneida, T. J. and Fish, S. E. Journal Article 1984 Central nervous system changes related to the reduction of visual inputs in a naturally blind fish (Astyanax hubbsi)
Romero, A. Thesis 1984 Responses to light in cave and surface populations of Astyanax fasciatus (Pisces, Characidae): An evolutionary interpretation
Romero, A. Journal Article 1984 Behaviour in an 'intermediate' population of the subterranean dwelling characid Astyanax fasciatus
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1984 Zur Evolution von Polygensystemen, untersucht an ober- unt unterirdischen Populationen des Astyanax mexicanus (Characidae, Pisces)
Schuppa, M. Thesis 1984 Morphometrische und meristische Untersuchungen an verschiedenen Astyanax-populationen (Characidae) Mexicos
Teyke, T. Journal Article 1985 Collision with and avoidance of obstacles by blind cave fish Anoptichthys jordani (Characidae)
Burchards, H., Dolle, A. and Parzefall, J. Journal Article 1985 The aggressive behaviour of an epigean population of Astyanax mexicanus (Characidae, Pisces) and some observations of three subterranean popukations
Romero, A. Journal Article 1985 Ontogenetic change in phototactic responses of surface and cave populations of Astyanax fasciatus (Pisces, Characidae)
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1985 The evolution of polygenic systems, studies on epigean and cave poplations of Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Pisces)
Lamprecht, G. and Weber, F. Journal Article 1985 Time-keeping mechanisms and their ecological significance in cavernicolous animals
Hassan, E. S. Journal Article 1986 On the discrimination of spatial intervals by the blind cave fish Anoptichthys jordani
De Fraipont, M. Journal Article 1986 La detection chimique de l'odeur des congeneres chex Astyanax mexicanus (forme cavernicole). Responses observees pour des cencentrations egales etablies a partir de groupes de densites differentes
Fraipont, M. Journal Article 1986 La detection chimique chez Astyanax mexicanus (forme cavernicole) en fonction de la densite des groupes
Wilkens, H. and Huppop, K. Journal Article 1986 Sympatric speciation in cave fishes ? Studies on a mixed population of epi- and hypogean Astyanax (Characidae, Pisces)
Huppop, K. Journal Article 1986 Oxygen consumption of Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Pisces): a comparison of epigean and hypogean populations
De Fraipont, M. and Thines, G. Journal Article 1986 Responses of the cave fish Astyanax mexicanus (Anoptichthys antrobius) to the odor of know or unknown conspecifics
De Fraipont, M. and Thines, G. Journal Article 1986 La detection chimique de l'odeur des predaeurs chex Astyanax mexixanus (formes cavernicoles et epigees)
Romero, A. Journal Article 1986 Charles Breder and the Mexican blind cave Characid
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1986 The evolution of polygenic systems. Studies on epigean and cave populations of Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Pisces)
Parzefall, J. Book Section 1986 Behavioural ecology of cave-dwelling fishes
De Fraipont, M. Journal Article 1987 La detection chimique chez Astyanax mexicanus (forme cavernicole, Pisces, Characidae), en fonction du sexe
De Fraipont, M. Journal Article 1987 La detection chimique chez Astyanax mexicanus (Teleostei, Characidae) (forme cavernicole) en fonction de la densite des groupes
Huppop, K. Journal Article 1987 Food finding ability in cave fish (Astyanax fasciatus)
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1987 Genetic analysis of evolutionary processes
Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1988 Evolution and genetics of epigean and cave Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Pisces): support for the neutral mutation theory
Coombs, S., Janssen, J. and Webb, J. Book Section 1988 Diversity of lateral line systems: evolutionary and functional considerations
De Fraipont, M. Journal Article 1988 The responses of Astyanax mexicanus (Pisces, Characidae, epigean form) to chemical traces of conspecific groups of varying densities
Teyke, T. Journal Article 1988 Flow field, swimming velocity and boundary layers: parameters which affect the stimulus for the lateral line organ in blind fish
Fricke, D. Journal Article 1988 Reaction to alarm substance in cave populations of Astyanax mexicanus (Characidae, Pisces)
Huppop, K. Thesis 1988 Phanomene und Bedeutung der Energieersparnis bei dem Hohlenfisch Astynax fasciatus
Langecker, T. G. Journal Article 1989 Studies of the light reaction of epigean and cave populations of Astyanax fasciatus (Characidea, Pisces)
Hassan, E. S. Book Section 1989 Hydrodynamic imaging of the surroundings by the lateral line of the blind cave fish Anoptichthys jordani
Fack, H. and Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1989 Eye reduction in hybrids and a naturally viable cave form Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Pisces)
Teyke, T. Journal Article 1989 Learning and remembering the environment in the blind cave fish Anoptichthys jordani
Fricke, D. and Parzefall, J. Journal Article 1989 Alarm reaction, aggresion and scholing in cave and river populations of Astyanax fasciatus (Pisces, Characidae) and their hybrids
Huppop, K. Journal Article 1989 Genetic analysis of oxygen consumption in cave and surface fish of Astyanax fasciatus (Characidea, Pisces): Further support for the neutral mutation theory
Abdel-Latif, H., Hassan, E. S. and von Campenhausen, C. Journal Article 1990 Sensory performance of blind Mexican cave fish after destruction of the canal neuromasts
Langecker, T. G. Thesis 1990 Das Licht als Evolutionsfaktor bei Hohlentieren- untersucht an ober- und unterirdisch lebenden Populationen des Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Pisces)
Parzefall, J. and Fricke, D. Journal Article 1990 Alarm raection and schooling in population hybrids of Astyanax (Pisces, Characidae)
Klimpel, B. and Parzefall, J. Journal Article 1990 Comparative studies of predatory behaviour in cave and river populations of Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Pisces)
Peters, N., Schmidt, W. and Fricke, D. Journal Article 1990 Die Feinstruktur der Kolbenzellen (Schreckstoffzellen) in der Epidermis von Astyanax mexicanus Fillippi 1853 (Characidae, Pisces) und seinen Hohlen derivaten "Anoptichthys"
Teyke, T. Journal Article 1990 Morphological differences in neuromasts of the blind cave fish Asyanax hubbsi and the sighted river fish Astyanax mexicanus
Yokoyama, R. and Yokoyama, S. Journal Article 1990 Convergent evolution of the red- and green-like visual pigment genes in fish Astyanax fasciatus and human
Yokoyama, R and Yokoyama, S Journal Article 1990 Isolation, DNA sequence and evolution of a color visual pigment gene of the blind cavefish Astyanax fasciatus
Bensouilah, M. and Denizot, J.P. Journal Article 1991 Taste buds and neuromasts of Astyanax jordani: Distribution and immunochemical demonstration of co-localised Substance P and Enkephalins
Parzefall, J. and Fricke, D. Journal Article 1991 Alarm and schooling in population hybrids of Astyanax fasciatus
Riedel, G. and Krug, L. Journal Article 1991 Olfaktorische Regionen im Vorderhirn des blinden Hohlenfisches Asyanax hubbsi
Langecker, T. G., Wilkens, H. and Junge, P. Journal Article 1991 Introgresve hybridisation in the Pachon cave population of Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae)
Campenhausen, C. Journal Article 1991 Die Bedentung der "inneren Landkarte" fur die Orientierung - Untersuchungen an blinden Hohlenfischen
Huppop, K. and Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1991 Bigger eggs in subterranean Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae, Pisces)
Huppop, K. Journal Article 1991 Muskulatur als Fettspeicher beim mexikanischen Hohlensalmler Astyanax fasciatus
Lamprecht, G. and Weber, F. Book Section 1992 Spontaneous locomotion behaviour in cavernicolous animals: The regression of the endogenous circadian system
Parzefall, J. Journal Article 1992 Schooloing behaviour in population hybrids of Astyanax fasciatus and Poecilia mexicana (Pisces, Characidae and Poeciliidae)
Parzefall, J. Book Section 1992 Behavioural aspects in animals living in caves
Hassan, E. S., Abdel-Latif, H. and Biebricher, R. Journal Article 1992 Studies on the effects of ca++ and co++ on the swimmimg behaviour of the blind Mexican cavefish
Wilkens, H. Book Section 1992 Neutral mutations and evolutionary progress
Langecker, T. G. and Longley, G. Book Section 1992 Blind catfish (Trogloglanis pattersoni and Satan eurystomus) from dep artesian waters. A study on convergent adaptations to cave and deep sea biota
Coombs S., Janssen J. and Montgomery J. Book Section 1992 Functional and Evolutionary Implications of Peripheral Diversity in Lateral Line Systems
Wilkens, H. and Meyer, M. Journal Article 1992 Eye formation and regression during early ontogeny in cave fishes
De Fraipont, M. Journal Article 1992 Response d'Astyanax mexicanus aux stimulations chimiques provenant de groupes de congeneres a differents stades de developpement
Parzefall, J. Book Section 1993 Behavioural ecology of cave-dwelling fishes
Langecker, T. G. Journal Article 1993 Genetic analysis of the dorsal light reaction in epigean and cave-dwelling Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae)
Hoffman, S. and Hausberg, C. Journal Article 1993 The aggressive behaviour of the Micos cave population (Astyanax fasciatus, Characidae, Teleostei) after selection for functional eyes in comaprison to an epigean one
Langecker, T. G., Schmale, H. and Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1993 Transcription of the opsin gene in degenerate eyes of cave dwelling Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae) and of its conspecific epigean ancestor during early ontogeny
Peters, N., Schacht, V., Schmidt, W. and Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1993 Gehirnproportionen und Auspragungsgrad der Sinnesorgane von Astyanax mexicanus (Pisces: Characidae). Ein Vergleich zwischen dem Flussfisch ubd seinen Hohlen-derivaten 'Anoptichthus'
Langecker, T. G., Schmale, H. and Wilkens, H. Journal Article 1993 Strukturelle und molekulargenetische Untersuchungen zur Augenreduktion beim Hohlenfisch Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae)
Teyke, T. and Schaerer, S. Journal Article 1994 Blind Mexican cave fish (Astyanax hubbsi) respond to moving visual stimuli
Borowsky, R. Journal Article 1994 Blind cave tetras of the Sierra Madre Oriental
Yokoyama, S., Meany, A., Wilkens, H. and Yokoyama, R. Journal Article 1995 Initial mutational steps towards loss of opsin gene function in cavefish
Langecker, T. G., Neumann, B., Hausberg, C. and Parzefall, J. Journal Article 1995 Evolution of the optical releasers for aggressive behaviour in cave-dwelling Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae)
Langecker, T. G., Wilkens, H. and Schmale, H. Journal Article 1995 Developmental constraints in regressive evolution: Studies of the expression of the delta-s crystallin gene in the developing lens of cave-dwelling Astaynax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819) (Teleostei, Characidae) by in situ hybridisation
Borowsky, R. Journal Article 1996 The Sierra de El Abra of Northeastern Mexico: blind fish in the worlds largest cave system
Riedel, G. Journal Article 1997 The forebrain of the blind cave fish Astyanax hubbsi (Characidae). I. General anatomy of the telencephalon
Behrens, M., Langecker, T.G., Wilkens, H. and Schmale, H. Journal Article 1997 Comparative analysis of Pax-6 sequence and expression in the eye development of the blind cavefish Astyanax fasciatus and its epigean conspecific
Riedel, G. and Krug, L. Journal Article 1997 The forebrain of the blind cave fish Astyanax hubbsi (Characidae). II. Projections of the olfactory bulb
Borowsky, R. and Espinasa, L. Journal Article 1997 Antiquity and origins of troglobitic Mexican tetras, Astyanax fasciatus
Jeffery, WR and Martasian, DP Journal Article 1998 Evolution of eye regression in the cavefish Astyanax: apoptosis and the Pax-6 gene
Wilkens, H. Book Section 1998 Genetics of cave fishes
Contreras-Balderas, S. and Lozano-Vilano, M.D.L. Journal Article 1998 Problemas nomenclaturales de las formas mexicanas del genero Astyanax (Pisces: Characidae)
Behrens, M, Wilkens, H and Schmale, H Journal Article 1998 Cloning of the alpha A-crystallin genes of a blind cave form and the epigean form of Astyanax mexicanus: a comparative analysis of structure, expression and evolutionary conservation
Baker, CF and Montgomery, J Journal Article 1999 The sensory basis of rheotaxis in the blind Mexican cave fish, Astyanax fasciatus
Kullander, S. O. Journal Article 1999 Fish species - how and why
Jeffery, W. R., Strickler, A.G., Guiney, S., Heyser, D.G. and Tomarev, S.I. Journal Article 2000 Prox1 in eye degeneration and sensory organ compensation during development and evolution of the cavefish Astyanax
Espinasa, L. and Borowsky, R. Journal Article 2000 Eyed cave fish in a karst window
Yamamoto, Y. and Jeffery, W. R. Journal Article 2000 Central role for the lens in cave fish eye degeneration
Ford, D.C. Book Section 2000 5.3.1. Deep phreatic caves and groundwater systems of the Sierra de El Abra, Mexico
Boudriot, F and Reutter, K Journal Article 2001 Ultrastructure of the taste buds in the blind cave fish Astyanax jordani ("Anoptichthys") and the sighted river fish Astyanax mexicanus (Teleostei, Characidae)
Strickler, A.G., Yamamoto, Y. and Jeffery, W. R. Journal Article 2001 Early and late changes in Pax6 expression accompany eye degeneration during cavefish development
Espinasa, L. and Borowsky, R. Journal Article 2001 Origins and relationships of cave populations of the blind Mexican tetra, Astyanax fasciatus, in the Sierra de El Abra
Montgomery, J.C., Coombs, S. and Baker, C.F. Journal Article 2001 The mechanosensory lateral line system of the hypogean form of Astyanax fasciatus
Jeffery, W. R. Journal Article 2001 Cavefish as a model system in evolutionary developmental biology
Borowsky, RL and Wilkens, H Journal Article 2002 Mapping a cave fish genome: Polygenic systems and regressive evolution
Krejca, J. Journal Article 2002 Recent field investigations of blind Astyanax
Strickler, AG, Famuditimi, K and Jeffery, WR Journal Article 2002 Retinal homeobox genes and the role of cell proliferation in cavefish eye degeneration
Coombs, S, New, JG and Nelson, M Journal Article 2002 Information-processing demands in electrosensory amd mechanosensory lateral line systems
Berg, A. and Watson, G.M. Journal Article 2002 Rapid recovery of sensory function in blind cave fish treated with anemone repair proteins
Romero, A., Jeffery, W.R. and Yamamoto, Y. Journal Article 2002 When cave fish see the light: Reaction norm to light exposure during development in epigean, troglomorphic, and hybrids of Astyanax fasciatus (Charicidae)
Dowling, TE, Martasian, DP and Jeffery, WR Journal Article 2002 Evidence for multiple genetic forms with similar eyeless phenotypes in the blind cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus
Porter, M.L. and Crandall, K.A. Journal Article 2003 Lost along the way: the significance of evolution in reverse
Strecker, U. Journal Article 2003 Polymorphic microsatellites isolated from the cave fish Astyanax fasciatus
Strecker, U., Bernatchez, L. and Wilkens, H. Journal Article 2003 Genetic divergence between cave and surface populations of Astyanax in Mexico (Characidae, Teleostei)
Contreras-Balderas, S, Almada-Villela, P, Lozano-Vilano, M de L and Garcia-Ramirez, ME Journal Article 2003 Freshwater fish at risk or extinct in Mexico
Sarma, SSS, Lopez-Romulo, A and Nandini, S Journal Article 2003 Larval feeding behaviour of blind fish Astyanax fasciatus (Characidae), black tetra Gymnocorymbus ternetzi (Characidae) and angel fish Pterophyllum scalare (Cichlidae) fed zooplankton
Wilkens, H. and Strecker, U. Journal Article 2003 Convergent evolution of the cavefish Astyanax (Characidae, teleostei): Genetic evidence from reduced eye-size and pigmentation
Valdez-Moreno, M. and Contreras-Balderas, S. Journal Article 2003 Skull osteology of the characid fish Astyanax mexicanus (Teleostei: Characidae)
McCauley, DW, Hixon, E and Jeffery, WR Journal Article 2004 Evolution of pigment cell regression in the cavefish Astyanax: a late step in melanogenesis
Jeffery, WR Journal Article 2005 Evolution of eye degeneration in cavefish: The return of pleiotropy
Jeffery, WR Journal Article 2005 Adaptive evolution of eye degeneration in the Mexican blind cavefish
Espinasa, L., Yamamoto, Y. and Jeffery, W.R. Journal Article 2005 Non-optical releasers for aggressive behaviour in blind and blinded Astyanax (Teleostei: Characidae)
Protas, M.E., Hersey, C., Kochanek, D., Zhou, Y., Wilkens, H., Jeffery, W.R., Zon, L.I., Borowsky, R. and Tabin, C.J. Journal Article 2006 Genetic analysis of cave fish reveals molecular convergence in the evolution of albinism
Kavalco, K.F. and Almeida-Toledo, L.F. Journal Article 2007 Molecular cytogenetics of blind Mexican tetra and comments on the karyotypic characteristics of genus Astyanax (Teleostei, Characidae)
Protas, M., Conrad, M., Gross, J.B., Tabin, C. and Borowsky, R.L. Journal Article 2007 Regressive evolution in the Mexican cave tetra, Astyanax mexicanus
Peleshanko, S, Julian, MD, Ornatska, M, McConney, ME, LeMieux, MC, Chen, NN, Tucker, C, Yang, YC, Liu, C, Humphrey, JAC and Tsukruk, VV Journal Article 2007 Hydrogel-encapsulated microfabricated haircells mimicking fish cupula neuromast
Windsor, S.P. Thesis 2008 Hydrodynamic imaging by blind Mexican cavefish
Salin, K, Voituron, Y, Colson, C and Hervant, F Journal Article 2008 To colonise subterranean environments without starvation tolerance capacity: the case of fish Astyanax mexicanus
Windsor, S, Mallinson, G and Montgomery, J Journal Article 2008 Hydrodynamic imaging by blind Mexican cave fish (Astyanax fasciatus)
Windsor, S, Tan, D and Montgomery, J Journal Article 2008 Swimming kinematics and hydrodynamic imaging in the blind Mexican cave fish (Astyanax fasciatus)
Protas, M, Tabansky, I, Conrad, M, Gross, JB, Vidal, O, Tabin, C and Borowsky, RL Journal Article 2008 Multi-trait evolution in a cave fish, Astyanax mexicanus
Gross, J.B., Protas, M., Conrad, M., Scheid, P.E., Vidal, O., Jeffery, W.R., Tabin, C. and others Journal Article 2008 Synteny and candidate gene prediction using an anchored linkage map of Astyanax mexicanus
Kowalko, J, Gross, JB, Protas, M, Borowsky, RL and Tabin, C Journal Article 2009 Genetic approaches to studying morphological and behavioural traits in Astyanax mexicanus
Yamamoto, Y, Byerly, MS, Jackman, WR and Jeffery, WR Journal Article 2009 Pleiotropic functions of embryonic sonic hedgehog expression link jaw and tastebud amplification with eye loss during cavefish evolution
Jeffery, WR Journal Article 2009 Regresive evolution in Astyanax cavefish
Varatharasan, N., Croll, R. and Franz-Odendaal, T. Journal Article 2009 Taste bud development and patterning in sighted and blind morphs of Astyanax mexicanus.
Sharma, S, Coombs, S, Patton, P and Burt de Perera, T Journal Article 2009 The function of wall-following behaviours in the Mexican blind cavefish and a sighted relative, the Mexican tetra (Astyanax)
McConney, ME, Chen, NN, Lu, D, Hu, H, Coombs, S, Liu, C and Tsukruk, VV Journal Article 2009 Biologically inspired design of hydrogel-capped hair sensors for enhanced underwater flow detection
Coombs, S and Patton, P Journal Article 2009 Short-range, sensorimotor adaptations for aquiring spatial knowledge
Windsor, S Journal Article 2009 Hydrodynamic imaging in blind Mexican cave fish
Patton, P, Coombs, S and Windsor, S Journal Article 2009 Active wall following in the Mexican blind cavefish (Astyanax sp.)
Windsor, S.P., Norris, S.E., Cameron, S.M., Mallinson, G.D. and Montgomery, J.C. Journal Article 2010 The flow fields involved in hydrodynamic imaging by blind Mexican cave fish (Astyanax fasciatus). Part II: gliding parallel to a wall.
Windsor, S.P., Norris, S.E., Cameron, S.M., Mallinson, G.D. and Montgomery, J.C. Journal Article 2010 The flow fields involved in hydrodynamic imaging by blind Mexican cave fish (Astyanax fasciatus). Part I: open water and heading towards a wall.
Salin, K., Voituron, Y., Mourin, J. and Hervant, F. Journal Article 2010 Cave colonization without fasting capacities: an example with the fish Astyanax fasciatus mexicanus
Van Trump, W.J., Coombs, S., Duncan, K. et al. Journal Article 2010 Gentamicin is ototoxic to all hair cells in the fish lateral line system
Patton, P, Windsor, S and Coombs, S Journal Article 2010 Active wall following by Mexican blind cavefish (Astyanax mexicanus)
Bradic, M, Beerli, P and Borowsky, RL Journal Article 2011 Population genetic evidence for convergance and parallelism in the Mexican blind cavefish (Astyanax mexicanus)
Kish, P.E., Bohnsack, B.L., Gallina, D., Kasprick, D.S. and Kahana, A. Journal Article 2011 The eye as an organizer of craniofacial development
Windsor, S, Paris, J and Burt de Perera, T Journal Article 2011 No role for direct touch using the pectoral fins, as an information gathering strategy in blind fish
Esquivel-Bobadilla, S Thesis 2011 Análisis genético de Astyanax mexicanus (Characidae, Teleostei, Pisces) de la vertiente atlántica de México usando microsatélites.
Yamamoto, Y. and Jeffery, W.R. Book Section 2011 Blind cavefish
Salin, K, Voituron, Y, Mourin, J and Hervant, F Journal Article 2011 Cave colonisation without fasting capacities: An example with the fish Astyanax fasciatus mexicanus
Tan, D, Patton, P and Coombs, S Journal Article 2011 Do blind cavefish have behavioural specializations for active flow-sensing?
Kowalko, J, Rohner, N, Borowsky, RL and Tabin, C Journal Article 2011 Cave fish as a model to elucidate the genetic basis of the evolution of behaviour
Bradic, M., Beerli, P., Garcia-de Leon, F. J., Esquivel-Bobadilla, S. and Borowsky, R. L. Journal Article 2012 Gene flow and population structure in the Mexican blind cavefish complex (Astyanax mexicanus)
Protas, M. and Jeffery, W. R. Journal Article 2012 Evolution and development in cave animals: from fish to crustaceans
Dufton, M, Hall, BK and Franz-Odendaal, T. Journal Article 2012 Early lens ablation causes dramatic long-term effects on the shape of bones in the craniofacial skeleton of Astyanax mexicanus
Idda, M.L., Bertolucci, C., Vallone, D., Gothilf, Y., Sánchez-Vázquez, F.J. and Foulkes N.S. Journal Article 2012 Circadian clocks: lessons from fish
Jeffery, W.R. Book Section 2012 Astyanax mexicanus: A model organism for evolution and adaptation
Mogdans, J. and Bleckmann, H. Journal Article 2012 Coping with flow: behavior, neurophysiology and modeling of the fish lateral line system
Hervant, F. Book Section 2012 Starvation in Subterranean Species Versus Surface-Dwelling Species: Crustaceans, Fish, and Salamanders
Wilkens, H. Book Section 2012 Neutral mutations
Trontelj, P. Book Section 2012 Natural selection
Gross, J.B. Journal Article 2012 The complex origin of Astyanax cavefish
Bibliowicz, J., Alie, A., Espinasa, L., Yoshizawa, M., Blin, M., Hinaux, H., Legendre, L., Pere, S. and Retaux, S. Journal Article 2013 Differences in chemosensory response between eyed and eyeless Astyanax mexicanus of the Rio Subterraneo cave
Rohner, N., Jarosz, D.F., Kowalko, J.E., Yoshizawa, M., Jeffery, W.R., Borowsky, R.L., Lindquist, S. and Tabin, C.J. Journal Article 2013 Cryptic variation in morphological evolution: HSP90 as a capacitor for loss of eyes in cavefish
Rohner, N Journal Article 2013 HSP90 as a capacitor for the evolution of eye loss in fish
Bradic, M., Teotonio, H. and Borowsky, R. L. Journal Article 2013 The population genomics of repeated evolution in the blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus
Gross, J.B., Furterer, A., Carlson, B.M. and Stahl, B.A. Journal Article 2013 An integrated transcriptome-wide analysis of cave and surface dwelling Astyanax mexicanus
Kowalko, J., Rohner, N., Linden, T.A., Rompani S.B., Warren, W.C., Borowsky, R., Tabin, C.J., Jeffery, W.R. and Yoshizawa M. Journal Article 2013 Convergence in feeding posture occurs through different loci in independently evolved cave populations of Astyanax mexicanus.
Stahl, B. A. and Gross, J. B. Journal Article 2013 Pigmentation loss in cave animals: A high-resolution study of destructive genetic mutations
Beale, A., Guibal, C., Tamai, T. K., Klotz, L., Cowen, S., Peyric, E., Reynoso, V. H., Yamamoto, Y. and Whitmore, D. Journal Article 2013 Circadian rhythms in Mexican blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus in the lab and in the field
Stahl, AL Journal Article 2013 An evaluation of eyelessness in cave dwelling Astyanax mexicanus using RNA-seq technology
Beale, A. Thesis 2013 The circadian clock of the Mexican blind cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus
Atukorala, A. D. S., Hammer, C., Dufton, M. and Franz-Odendaal, T. A. Journal Article 2013 Adaptive evolution of the lower jaw dentition in Mexican tetra (Astyanax mexicanus)
Pazza, R Journal Article 2013 Molecular systematics of the genus Astyanax - Starter edition
Elliott, William R. Journal Article 2013 Astyanax: Looking back 45 years
Pennisi, E. Journal Article 2013 Cavefish study supports controversial evolutionary mechanism
Kowalko, J.E., Rohner, N., Rompani, S.B., Peterson, B.K., Linden, T.A., Yoshizawa, M., Kay, E.H., Weber, J., Hoekstra, H.E., Jeffery, W.R., Borowsky, R. and Tabin, C.J. Journal Article 2013 Loss of schooling behavior in cavefish through sight-dependent and sight-independent mechanisms
Windsor, S.P. Book Section 2014 Hydrodynamic imaging by blind Mexican cavefish
Atukorallaya, D. and Franz-Odendaal, T. Journal Article 2014 Astyanax mexicanus-A novel model of tooth shape formation and regeneration
Espinasa, L., Bartolo, N.D. and Newkirk, C.E. Journal Article 2014 DNA sequences of troglobitic nicoletiid insects supports Sierra de El Abra and the Sierra de Guatemala as a single biogeographic area: Implications for Astyanax
Atukorala, A. D. S. and Franz-Odendaal, T. A. Journal Article 2014 Spatial and temporal events in tooth development of Astyanax mexicanus
McGaugh, S.E., Gross, J.B., Aken, B., Blin, M., Borowsky, R., Chalopin, D., Hinaux, H., Jeffery, W.R., Keene, A., Ma, L., Minx, P., Murphy, D., O'Quin, K.E., Retaux, S., Rohner, N., Searl, S.M., Stahl, B.A., Tabin, C., Volff, J.N., Yoshizawa M, Warren WC. Journal Article 2014 The cavefish genome reveals candidate genes for eye loss
Moran, D., Softley, R. and Warrant, E.J. Journal Article 2014 Eyeless Mexican cavefish save energy by eliminating the circadian rhythm in metabolism
Montgomery, J., Bleckmann, H. and Coombs, S. Book Section 2014 Sensory Ecology and Neuroethology of the Lateral Line
Gross, J.B., Krutzler, A.J. and Carlson, B.M. Journal Article 2014 Complex craniofacial changes in blind cave-dwelling fish are mediated by genetically symmetric and asymmeric loci
Elliott, W.R. Journal Article 2014 Sotano de Yerbaniz
Coombs, S., Bleckmann, H., Fay, R.R. and Popper, A.N. Book 2014 The Lateral Line System
Bleckmann, H., Mogdans, J. and Coombs, S.L. Book 2014 Flow sensing in air and water. Behavioral, neural and engineering principles of operation
Holzman, R., Perkol-Finkel, S. and Zilman, G. Journal Article 2014 Mexican blind cavefish use mouth suction to detect obstacles
Palacios-Vargas, J.G., Juberthie, C. and Reddell, J. Book 2014-2015 Encyclopaedia Biospeologica Mexico
Devos, Lucie, Alie, A. and Retaux, S Journal Article 2015 Developmental evolution of the basal forebrain in cavefish
Caballero-Hernandez, O., Hernandez-Patricio, M., Sigala-Regalado, I., Morales-Malacara, J. B. and Miranda-Anaya, M. Journal Article 2015 Circadian rhythms and photic entrainment of swimming activity in cave-dwelling fish Astyanax mexicanus (Actinopterygii: Characidae), from El Sotano La Tinaja, San Luis Potosi, Mexico
Aspiras, A.C., Rohner, N., Martineau, B., Borowsky, R.L. and Tabin, C.J. Journal Article 2015 Melanocortin 4 receptor mutations contribute to the adaptation of cavefish to nutrient-poor conditions
Bradic, M, Rohner, N, Tabin, C and Borowsky, R. Journal Article 2015 Caves with eyed and eyeless populations of Astyanax
Rohner, N Journal Article 2015 Hungry, fat and healthy - Studying the physiological basis of cave adaptation
Stahl, Bethany A. and Gross, Joshua B. Journal Article 2015 Alterations in Mc1r gene expression are associated with regressive pigmentation in Astyanax cavefish
Stahl, B. A., Ma, L and Gross, J. B. Journal Article 2015 High resolution genomic mapping reveals genes contributing to complex melaophore variation in Astyanax mexicanus cavefish
Hernandez, D Journal Article 2015 Endohelminth parasites of the genus Astyanax through its geographical distribution in Mexico
Stemmer, M., Schuhmacher, L.-N., Foulkes, N.S., Bertolucci, C. and Wittbrodt, J. Journal Article 2015 Cavefish eye loss in response to an early block in retinal differentiation progression
Dufton, Megan and Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A. Journal Article 2015 Morphological diversity in the orbital bones of two teleosts with experimental and natural variation in eye size
Silva, D. M. Z. A., Utsunomia, R., Pansonato-Alves, J.C., Oliveira, C. and Foresti, F. Journal Article 2015 Chromosomal Mapping of Repetitive DNA Sequences in Five Species of Astyanax (Characiformes, Characidae) Reveals Independent Location of U1 and U2 snRNA Sites and Association of U1 snRNA and 5S rDNA
O'Quin, Kelly E., Doshi, Pooja, Lyon, Anastasia, Hoenemeyer, Emma, Yoshizawa, Masato and Jeffery, William R. Journal Article 2015 Complex Evolutionary and Genetic Patterns Characterize the Loss of Scleral Ossification in the Blind Cavefish Astyanax mexicanus
McGaugh, S. E. Journal Article 2015 Population genomics of cavefish
Moran, D., Softley, R. and Warrant, E.J. Journal Article 2015 The energetic cost of vision and the evolution of eyeless Mexican cavefish
Hinaux, H., Blin, M., Fumey, J., Legendre, L., Heuze, A., Casane, D. and Retaux, S. Journal Article 2015 Lens defects in Astyanax mexicanus cavefish: Evolution of crystallins and a role for alphaA-crystallin
Fumey, J. Journal Article 2015 Evidence of late Pleistocene origin of Astyanax mexicanus cavefish
Yoshizawa, Masato, Robinson, Beatriz G., Duboue, Erik R., Masek, Pavel, Jaggard, James B., O'Quin, Kelly E., Borowsky, Richard L., Jeffery, William R. and Keene, Alex C. Journal Article 2015 Distinct genetic architecture underlies the emergence of sleep loss and prey-seeking behavior in the Mexican cavefish
Carlson, B.M., Onusko, S.W. and Gross, J.B. Journal Article 2015 A high-density linkage map for Astyanax mexicanus Using genotyping-by-sequencing technology
Jaggard, J. B. Journal Article 2015 Distinct neural mechanisms underlie the convergent evolution of sleep loss in Astyanax
Riddle, M and Tobin, C. J. Journal Article 2015 Astyanax mexicanus as a model to study metabolism and the evolution of the digestive system
Kulpa, Matthew, Bak-Coleman, Joseph and Coombs, Sheryl Journal Article 2015 The lateral line is necessary for blind cavefish rheotaxis in non-uniform flow
Pennisi, E. Journal Article 2016 Antisocial cave fish may hold clues to schizophrenia, autism
Pennisi, E Journal Article 2016 Blind cave fish may provide insights into human health
Retaux, S., Alie, A., Blin, M., Devos, L., Elipot, Y. and Hinaux, H. Book Section 2016 Neural development and evolution in Astyanax mexicanus: Comparing cavefish and surface fish brains
Yoshizawa, M., Settle, A., Macaspac, C., Fernandes, V. Yoshida, M. and Keene, A. Conference Paper 2016 Adaptation through changes of behavioral and morphological traits in Mexican Cavefish
Beale, A. D. and Whitmore, D. Book Section 2016 Daily Rhythms in a Timeless Environment: Circadian Clocks in Astyanax mexicanus
Rohner, Nicolas Book Section 2016 Selection Through Standing Genetic Variation
Aspiras, A., Tabin, C. and Rohner, N. Conference Paper 2016 Astyanax mexicanus as a natural model for metabolic adaptation
Gross, J.B., Stahl, B.A., Powers, A.K. and Carlson, B.M. Journal Article 2016 Natural bone fragmentation in the blind cave-dwelling fish, Astyanax mexicanus: candidate gene identification through integrative comparative genomics
Casane, D. and Retaux, S. Journal Article 2016 Evolutionary genetics of the cavefish Astyanax mexicanus
Foulkes, N. S., Whitmore, D., Vallone, D and Bertolucci, C. Journal Article 2016 Studying the evolution of the vertebrate circadian clock: The power of fish as compataive models
O'Quin, Kelly and McGaugh, Suzanne E. Book Section 2016 Mapping the Genetic Basis of Troglomorphy in Astyanax: How Far We Have Come and Where Do We Go from Here?
Atukorala, A. D. S. and Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A. Book Section 2016 Evolution and Development of the Cavefish Oral Jaws: Adaptations for Feeding
Lyon, A., Krutzler, A.J., Gross, J.B. and O'Quin, K.E. Conference Paper 2016 Two to three genes control scleral ossification in blind Astyanax mexicanus cavefish
Beale, A., Whitmore, D. and Moran, D. Journal Article 2016 Life in a dark biosphere: A review of circadian physiology in "arrhythmic" environments
O'Quin, K.E., Doshi, P., Lyon, A., Hoenemeyer, E., Yoshizawa, M. and Jeffery, W.R. Conference Paper 2016 The evolution of scleral ossification in the Mexican Cavefish (Astyanax mexicanus)
Schmitter-Soto, JJ Journal Article 2016 A phylogeny of Astyanax (Characiformes: Characidae) in Central and North America
Keene, A.C., Yoshizawa, M. and McGaugh, S.E. Book 2016 Biology and Evolution of the Mexican Cavefish
Carlson, B.M. and Gross, J.B. Conference Paper 2016 The unusual suspects: Genetic analysis reveals candidate genes potentially underlying altered activity profiles in the blind Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus
Kaplan, S.A., Powers, A.K. and Gross, J.B. Conference Paper 2017 Understanding the Origin of Cranial Bone Fragmentation: Live-fluorescent Imaging Across Astyanax mexicanus Development
Cartwright, R.A., Schwartz, R.C., Merry, A.L. and Howell, M.M. Journal Article 2017 The importance of selection in the evolution of blindness in cavefish
Hinaux, H, Recher, G, Alie, A., Legendre, L, Blin, M. and Retaux, S Journal Article 2017 Lens apoptosis in the Astyanax blind cavefish is not triggered by its small size or defects in morphogenesis
Riddle, M. R.; Tabin, C. J Conference Paper 2017 The eyeless Mexican cavefish Astyanax mexicanus as a model to investigate development and evolution of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract
Fernandes, V Journal Article 2017 How enhancement of sensory system is integrated to generate adaptive behavior
Yoshizawa, M Journal Article 2017 Rapid evolution of the gut symbionts and asd-like behavior in the extreme cave environment
Box, AC Journal Article 2017 Immunology without antibodies: Studying fish hematopoietic tissue using intrinsic cell signals, image cytometry and advanced analysis methods
Riddle, M Journal Article 2017 What’s in your water? Pathogen landscape analysis of lab-raised astyanax mexicanus; practical guidelines to increase biosecurity
Krishnan, J and Rohner, N Journal Article 2017 Cavefish and the basis for eye loss
Delić, T., Trontelj, P., Rendoš, M. and Fišer, C. Journal Article 2017 The importance of naming cryptic species and the conservation of endemic subterranean amphipods
Peña-Herrejón, Guillermo A. Sanchez-Velazquez, Julieta Cruz-Hernández, Andrez Aguirre-Becerra, Humberto García-Trejo, Fernando Conference Paper 2017 Breeding system for Astyanax mexicanus
Jaggard, J. B., Robinson, B. G., Stahl, B, Oh, I, Masek, P, Yoshizawa, M and Keene, A. Journal Article 2017 The lateral line confers evolutionarily derived sleep loss in the Mexican cavefish.
Stahl, B Journal Article 2017 The evolution of neural circuitry regulating sleep and arousal in the blind mexican cavefish
Torres-Paz, J Journal Article 2017 Developmental evolution of the prosencephalon in blind cavefish: Origins of natural variations in neuropeptidergic patterning and their behavioral consequences
Gore, A.V. Journal Article 2017 Role of DNA methylation in cavefish eye specific gene repression
Alvarado, C.G. Journal Article 2017 Parallel evolution of body shape in Astyanax (Characidae) morphotypes
Stahl, B.A. and Gross, J.B. Book 2017 A comparative transcriptomic analysis of development in two Astyanac cave populations
Gore, A.V., Tomins, K.A., Iben, J., Ma, L., Castranova, D., Davis, A.E., Parkhurst, A., Jeffery, W.R. and Weinstein, B.M. Journal Article 2017 An epigenetic mechanism for cavefish eye degeneration
Pierre, C Journal Article 2017 Functional and behavioral consequences of the mutation in mao in the blind cavefish astyanax mexicanus
Riddle, M Journal Article 2017 It takes guts to live in a cave: Investigating the genetic basis of cave-specific gastrointestinal (gi) and metabolic adaptations
Schmitter-Soto, JJ Journal Article 2017 A revision of Astyanax (Characiformes: Characidae) in Central and North America, with the description of nine new species
Fumey, J., Hinaux, H., Noirot, C., Thermes, C., Retaux, S. and Casane, D. Journal Article 2017 Evidence for Late Pleistocene origin of Astyanax mexicanus cavefish.
Wilkens, H. and Strecker, U. Book 2017 Evolution in the Dark: Darwin's Loss Without Selection
Lyon, A., Powers, A. K., Gross, J. B. and O'Quin, K. E. Journal Article 2017 Two – three loci control scleral ossicle formation via epistasis in the cavefish Astyanax mexicanus
Jaggard, J. B. Journal Article 2017 The lateral line confers evolutionarily derived sleep loss in the mexican cavefish
Gross, J. B. Journal Article 2017 Evolution and development of cranial asymmetry in Astyanax cavefish
Ojha, A. and Watve, M. Journal Article 2018 Blind fish: An eye opener
Chin, J.S.R., Gassant, C.E., Amaral, P.M., Lloyd, E., Stahl, B.A., Jaggard, J.B., Keene, A.C. and Duboue, E.R. Journal Article 2018 Convergence on reduced stress behavior in the Mexican Blind Cavefish
Stah, B.A., Sears, C.R., Ma, L., Perkins, M. and Gross, J.B. Book Section 2018 Pmela and Tyrp1b contribute to melanophore variation in Mexican cavefish
Torres-Dowdall, J., Karagic, N., Plath, M. and Riesch, R. Journal Article 2018 Evolution in caves: selection from darkness causes spinal deformities in teleost fishes
Gore, A., Jeffery, W., Retaux, S. and Rohner, N. Book 2018 Cavefish development
Klaassen, H., Wang, Y., Adamski, K., Rohner, N. and Kowalko, J.E. Journal Article 2018 CRISPR mutagenesis confirms the role of oca2 in melanin pigmentation in Astyanax mexicanus
Powers, A.K., Boggs, T.E. and Gross, J.B. Journal Article 2018 Canal neuromast position prefigures developmental patterning of the suborbital bone series in Astyanax cave- and surface-dwelling fish
Gore, A.V., Rohner, N., Rétaux, S. and Jeffery, W.R. Journal Article 2018 Seeing a bright future for a blind fish
Rohner, N. Book Section 2018 “Out of the dark” Cavefish are entering biomedical research
Stern, D.B and Crandall, K.A. Journal Article 2018 The evolution of gene expression underlying vision loss in cave animals
Ma, L., Strickler, A.G., Parkhurst, A., Yoshizawa, M., Shi, J. and Jeffery, W.R. Journal Article 2018 Maternal genetic effects in Astyanax cavefish development
Xiong, S., Krishnan, J., Peuß, F. and Rohner, N. Journal Article 2018 Early adipogenesis contributes to excess fat accumulation in cave populations of Astyanax mexicanus
Ren, X.Y., Hamilton, N., Müller, F. and Yamamoto, Y. Journal Article 2018 Cellular rearrangement of the prechordal plate contributes to eye degeneration in the cavefish
Alie, A., Devos, L., Torres-Paz, J., Prunier, L., Boulet, F., Blin, M., Elipot, Y. and Retaux, S. Journal Article 2018 Developmental evolution of the forebrain in cavefish, from natural variations in neuropeptides to behavior
Riddle, M.R., Boesmans, W., Caballero, O, Kazwiny, Y. and Tabin,C.J. Journal Article 2018 Morphogenesis and motility of the Astyanax mexicanus gastrointestinal tract
Espinasa, L. Book Section 2018 The Guerrero fish population: Astyanax aeneus as a comparative cavefish model
Yoshizawa, M., Settle, A., Hermosura, M.C., Tuttle, L.J., Cetraro, N., Passow, C.N. and McGaugh, S.E. Journal Article 2018 The evolution of a series of behavioral traits is associated with autism-risk genes in cavefish
Riddle, M., Martineau, B., Peavey, M. and Tabin, C. Journal Article 2018 Raising the Mexican tetra Astyanax mexicanus for analysis of post-larval phenotypes and whole-mount immunohistochemistry.
Espinasa, L., Legendre, L., Fumey, J., Blin, M., Rétaux, S. and Espinasa, M. Journal Article 2018 A new cave locality for Astyanax cavefish in Sierra de El Abra, Mexico
Fernandes, V.F.L., Macaspac, C., Lu, L. and Yoshizawa, M. Journal Article 2018 Evolution of the developmental plasticity and a coupling between left mechanosensory neuromasts and an adaptive foraging behavior
Elliott, W.R. Book 2018 The Astyanax Caves of Mexico: Cavefishes of San Luís Potosí, Tamaulipas, and Guerrero
Lloyd, E., Olive, C., Stahl, B.A., Jaggarda, J.B., Amaral, P., Dubouéa, E.R and Keene, A.C. Journal Article 2018 Evolutionary shift towards lateral line dependent prey capture behavior in the blind Mexican cavefish
Mirande, J.M. Journal Article 2018 Morphology, molecules and the phylogeny of Characidae (Teleostei, Characiformes)
Frøland Steindal, I.V., Beale, A.D., Yamamoto, Y. and Whitmore, D. Journal Article 2018 Development of the Astyanax mexicanus circadian clock and non-visual light responses
Shiriagin, V. and Korsching, S.I. Journal Article 2018 Massive expansion of bitter taste receptors in blind cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus
Devitsina, G.V. and Golovkina, T.V. Journal Article 2018 Structural Organization of the Taste Apparatus in Characins (Characidae, Teleostei
Borowsky, R. Journal Article 2018 Primer. Cavefishes
Tabin, J.A., Aspiras, A., Martineau, B., Riddle, M., Kowalko, J. Borowsky, R. Rohner, N. and Tabin, C.J. Journal Article 2018 Temperature preference of cave and surface populations of Astyanax mexicanus
Riddle, M.R., Aspiras, A.C., Gaudenz, K., Peuß, R., Sung, J.Y., Martineau, B., Peavey, M., Box, A.C., Tabin, J.A., McGaugh, S., Borowsky, R., Tabin, C.J. and Rohner, N. Journal Article 2018 Insulin resistance in cavefish as an adaptation to a nutrient-limited environment
Borowsky, R., Luk, A., He, X.J. and Kim, R.S. Journal Article 2018 Unique sperm haplotypes are associated with phenotypically different sperm subpopulations in Astyanax fish
Rohner, N. Journal Article 2018 Cavefish as an evolutionary mutant model system for human disease
Fumey, J., Hinaux, H., Noirot, C., Thermes, C., Rétaux, S. and Casane, D. Journal Article 2018 Evidence for late Pleistocene origin of Astyanax mexicanus cavefish
Gross, J.B., Weagley, J., Stahl, B.A., Ma, L., Espinasa, L. and McGaugh, S.E. Journal Article 2018 A local duplication of the Melanocortin receptor 1 locus in Astyanax
Torres-Paz,J., Hyacinthe, C., Pierre, C., Retaux, S. Journal Article 2018 Towards an integrated approach to understand Mexican cavefish evolution
Devi, A., Atukorala, S. and Franz-Odendaal, T.A. Journal Article 2018 Genetic linkage between altered tooth and eye development in lens-ablated Astyanax mexicanus
Garita-Alvarado, C.A., Barluenga, M. and Ornelas-García, C.P. Journal Article 2018 Parallel evolution of morphs of Astyanax species (Teleostei: Characidae) in México and Central America
Pazza, R., Dergam, J.A. and Kavalco, K.F. Journal Article 2018 Trends in karyotype evolution in Astyanax (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae): Insights from molecular data.
Retaux, S. Journal Article 2018 The healthy diabetic cavefish conundrum
Gore, A.V., Tomins K.A., Iben, J., Ma, L., Castranova, D., Davis, A.E., Parkhurst, A., Jeffery, W.R. and Weinstein, B.M. Journal Article 2018 An epigenetic mechanism for cavefish eye degeneration
Bussotti, S., Di Franco, Antonio AU - Bianchi, Carlo Nike AU - Chevaldonné, Pierre AU - Egea, Lea AU - Fanelli, Emanuela AU - Lejeusne, Christophe AU - Musco, Luigi AU - Navarro-Barranco, Carlos AU - Pey, Alexis AU - Planes, Serge AU - Journal Article 2018 Fish mitigate trophic depletion in marine cave ecosystems
Ornelas-García, P,. Pajares, S., Sosa-Jiménez, V.M., Rétaux, S. and Miranda-Gamboa, R.A. Journal Article 2018 Microbiome differences between riverdwelling and cave-adapted populations of the fish Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi, 1853)
Sovrano, V.A., Potrich, D., Foà, A. and Bertolucci, C. Journal Article 2018 Extra-visual systems in the spatial reorientation of cavefish
Powers, A.K., Kaplan, S.A., Boggs, T.E. and Gross, J. Journal Article 2018 Facial bone fragmentation in blind cavefish arises through two unusual ossification processes
Blin, M., Tine, E., Meister, L., Elipot, Y., Bibliowicz, J., Espinasa, L. and Rétaux, S. Journal Article 2018 Developmental evolution and developmental plasticity of the olfactory epithelium and olfactory skills in Mexican cavefish
Carlson, B.M. and Gross, J.B. Journal Article 2018 Characterization and comparison of activity profiles exhibited by the cave and surface morphotypes of the blind Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus
Tang, J.L.Y., Guo, Y., Stockdale, W.T., Rana, K., Killen, A.C., Mommersteeg, M.T.M. and Yamamoto, Y. Journal Article 2018 The developmental origin of heart size and shape differences in Astyanax mexicanus populations
Kopp, J., Avasthi, S. and Espinasa, L. Journal Article 2018 Phylogeographical convergence between Astyanax cavefish and mysid shrimps in the Sierra de El Abra, Mexico
Stockdale, W.T., Lemieux, M.E., Killen, A.C., Zhao, J., Hu, J., Riepsaame, J. Hamilton, N., Kudoh, T., Riley, P.R., van Aerle, R., Yamamoto, Y. and Mommersteeg, M.T.M. Journal Article 2018 Heart regeneration in the Mexican cavefish
Jaggard, J.B., Stahl, B.A., Lloyd, E., Prober, D.A., Duboue, E.R. and Keene, A.C. Journal Article 2018 Hypocretin underlies the evolution of sleep loss in the Mexican cavefish
Carlson, B.M., Klingler, I.B., Meyer, B.J. and Gross, J.B. Journal Article 2018 Genetic analysis reveals candidate genes for activity QTL in the blind Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus
Kling, J. Journal Article 2018 Insulin resistance grows in the dark
Sears, C.R. and Gross, J.B. Conference Paper 2018 The RNA Architecture of Life in the Dark: A Transcriptomic Assessment of Varying Photic Conditions in the Blind Mexican Cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus
Reyes Corral, W.D. and Aguirre, W.E. Journal Article 2019 Effects of temperature and water turbulence on vertebral number and body shape in Astyanax mexicanus (Teleostei: Characidae)
Stockdale, W.T., Tang, J.L.Y., Hu, Z., Potts, H., Lemieux, M.E., Yamamoto, Y. and Mommersteeg, M.T.M. Conference Paper 2019 Heart development and regeneration in Astyanax mexicanus
Borowsky, R. Conference Paper 2019 Gene flow from surface to cave populations of Astyanax mexicanus is ongoing
Powers, A.K., Boggs, T.E., Kaplan, S.A., Davis, E.M. and Gross, J.B. Conference Paper 2019 Sensory-skeletal integration and cranial asymmetry in cavefish
Berning, D., Adams, H., Luc, H. and Gross, J.B. Journal Article 2019 In-frame indel mutations in the genome of the blind Mexican cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus
Policarpo, M., Fumey, J., Lafargeas, P., Legendre, L., Naquin, D., Thermes, C., Møller, P.R., Bernatchez, L., García-Machado, E., Rétaux, S. and Casane, D. Conference Paper 2019 Molecular decay of light-processing genes in cavefishes: assessing the effects of time, genome architecture and gene flow
Warren, W.C., Koren, S., Meyer, A. and Rohner, N. Conference Paper 2019 The next generation of Asytanax mexicanus genome references
Luc, H., Sears, C., Raczka, A. and Gross, J.B. Journal Article 2019 Wholemount in situ hybridization for Astyanax Embryos
Hyacinthe, C., Attia, J. and Retaux, S. Conference Paper 2019 Evolution of acoustic communication in the blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus
Leclercq, J., Torres-Paz, J. and Rétaux, S. Conference Paper 2019 Impact of maternal factors during evolution of gastrulation and forebrain morphogenesis in Astyanax mexicanus
Stahl, B.A., Peuß, R., McDole, B., Kenzior, A., Jaggard, J.B., Gaudenz, K., Krishnan, J., McGaugh, S.E., Duboue, E.R., Keene, A.C. and Rohner, N. Journal Article 2019 Stable transgenesis in Astyanax mexicanus using the Tol2 transposase system
Agnès, F., Devos, L. and Rétaux, S. Conference Paper 2019 The embryonic eyefield of the cavefish Astyanax mexicanus
Pennisi, E. Web Page 2019 A lopsided face helps this eyeless cave fish navigate
McGaugh, S.E., Passow, C., Jaggard, J.B., Stahl, B. and Keene, A. Conference Paper 2019 Sleep deprivation evokes unique expression responses across independently evolved cavefish
Rétaux, S., Bibliowicz, Y., Blin, M., Elipot, Y., Espinasa, L., Hinaux, H. and Tine, E. Conference Paper 2019 Olfactory capacities in blind cavefish
Legendre, L., Pere, S. and Rétaux, S. Conference Paper 2019 Water quality of rivers and caves inhabited by Astyanax mexicanus surface fish and cavefish
Fernández, A.A., Evans, E.I. and Baumann, D.P. Conference Paper 2019 The importance of health monitoring in Astyanax mexicanus
Wilkens, H Conference Paper 2019 The primacy of the genotype
Worsham, M., Fang, J. and Yoshizawa, M. Conference Paper 2019 Epigenetic regulation of phenotype of Mexican tetras
Legendre, L., Guillet, B., Leguay, E., Meunier, E., Keck, N. and Sohm, F. Conference Paper 2019 RESAMA : French network for aquatic model animal health Monitoring. Focus on Astyanax mexicanus
O’Gorman, M., Lewis, P., Keene, A., Kowalko, J. and Duboué, E. Conference Paper 2019 Adapting zebrafish rearing techniques for Astyanax mexicanus
Blin, M., Fumey, J., Père, S., Pierre, C., Torres-Paz, J., Simon, V., Espinasa, L. Legendre, L., Casane, D. and Rétaux, S. Conference Paper 2019 Olfactory behavior of different wild Astyanax mexicanus populations
Fernandes, V.F.L., Hernandez, H., Doeden, N. and Yoshizawa, M. Conference Paper 2019 Evolution of sensory-behavior laterality in Astyanax mexicanus
Devos, L., Edouard, J., Simon, V., Agnès, F., Sohm, F. and Rétaux, S. Conference Paper 2019 Eye morphogenesis in the blind Mexican cavefish
Ma, L. and Jeffery, W.R. Conference Paper 2019 Global analysis of maternal transcripts in Astyanax cavefish eggs
Lloyd, E., Olive, C., Stahl, B.A., Jaggard, J.B., Amaral, P., Duboué, E.R. and Keene, A.C. Conference Paper 2019 Evolutionary shift towards lateral line dependent prey-capture in the Mexican Cavefish
Boggs, T.E. and Gross, J.B. Conference Paper 2019 Exploring the role of blood physiology in cave adaptation
Atukorallaya, D., Bhatia, V. and Ratnayake, R. Conference Paper 2019 Tooth and jaw development in health and disease; Insight form Mexican tetra (Astyanax mexicanus)
Jaggard, J., Lloyd, E., Loomis, C., Cook, C., Vega, P., McGaugh, S., Rohner, N., Bohrner, J., Duboue, E. and Keene, A.C. Conference Paper 2019 A cavefish brain atlas reveals functional and anatomical evolution of morphology and neural activity with convergence of sleep and feeding circuits
Duboue, E. Conference Paper 2019 Evolution of stress responses in Mexican cavefish
McDole, B., Jaggard, J., Duboue, E. and Keene, A.C. Conference Paper 2019 Multiphoton ablation of HCRT neurons increases sleep in the Molino cavefish population
Garduño-Sánchez, M.A.A. and Ornelas-García, C.P. Conference Paper 2019 Molecular evolution of rhodopsin gene in Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi, 1853)
Loomis, C., Peuss, R., Green, M., McGaugh, S.E., Rohner, N., Keene, A.C. and Duboue, E.R. Conference Paper 2019 Generation of a brain atlas for adult Astyanax reveal differences in distinct neuroanatomical sub-nuclei associated with cave-specific behaviors
Riddle, M., Damen, F., Aspiras, A., Tabin, J., McGaugh, S. and Tabin, C. Conference Paper 2019 Investigating the genetic and developmental basis of gut length plasticity in A. mexicanus
Paz, A., McDole, B., Duboue, E. and Keene, A.C. Conference Paper 2019 Analysis of startle responses in A. mexicanus reveals possible effects of diminished predation
Torres-Paz, J., Leclercq. J. and Rétaux, S. Conference Paper 2019 Evolution of gastrulation and forebrain morphogenesis in Astyanax mexicanus
Kowalko, J.E. Conference Paper 2019 Elucidating the genetic basis of trait evolution in the cavefish
Peuß, R., Box, A.C., Wang, Y., Chen, S., Krishnan, J., Tsuchiya, D., Peak, A., Perera, A., Slaughter, B. and Rohner, N. Conference Paper 2019 Cave adaptation shifts immune cell composition compensating increased inflammatory responses in Astyanax mexicanus
van der Weele, C.M. and Jeffery, W.R. Conference Paper 2019 Cavefish embryos develop more red blood cells as an adaptation to hypoxia
Stahl, B.A., Peuß, R., McDole, B., Kenzior, A., Jaggard, J.B., Gaudenz, K., Krishnan, J., McGaugh, S.E., Duboue, E.R., Keene, A.C and Rohner, N. Journal Article 2019 Stable transgenesis in Astyanax mexicanus using the Tol2 transposase system
Krishnan, J. and Rohner, N. Conference Paper 2019 Regulatory evolution of metabolic adaptations in cavefish
Bilandžija, H., Hollifield, B., Steck, M., Meng, G., Ng, M., Bedek, J., Ćetković, H., Porter, M., Renner, K.J. ands Jeffery, W.R. Conference Paper 2019 Phenotypic plasticity and genetic assimilation in the evolution of cave-adapted traits in Astyanax mexicanus
Sifuentes-Romero I. and Kowalko, J.E. Conference Paper 2019 Morphological variations in eye size: does rx3 play a role?
Hernández, J., Garita-Alvarado, C.A. and Ornelas-García, C.P. Conference Paper 2019 Parallel trophic morphology in cave and surface fish Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi 1853)
Phelps, A. and Gross, J. Conference Paper 2019 Examination of pigmentation differences in cave and surface Astyanax mexicanus using in situ hybridization
Imarazene, B., Herpin, A., Feron, R., Postlethwait, J.H., Schartl, M., Retaux, S. and Guiguen, Y. Conference Paper 2019 Micro-evolution of sex determination mechanisms and sex determining genes in the cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus
Yoshizawa, M., Valdez, C., Balaan, C., Lactaoen, K., Kato, J., Ito, M., Yew, J. and Iwashita, M. Conference Paper 2019 Reciprocal social Interaction was recovered under the treatment of ketogenic diet
Espinasa, L., Retaux, S., Yoshisawa, M., Heintz, C. and Balogh- Robinson, R. Conference Paper 2019 Vibration Attraction Behavior expression is prevalent among caves, but variable within caves
Jeffery, W.R., Ma, L., Shi, J., Ng, M. and Gore,A. Conference Paper 2019 Evolution of left-right axis asymmetry in Astyanax cavefish
Mogdans, J. Journal Article 2019 Sensory ecology of the fish lateral line system: morphological and physiological adaptations for the perception of hydrodynamic stimuli
Palluzzi, T., Rowland, R. and Gross, J. Conference Paper 2019 The effect of neuromast position on bone fragmentation in the third suborbital bone of Astyanax mexicanus
Ornelas-García, C.P., Pajares, S., Sosa-Jiménez, V.M., Rétaux, S. and Gamboa-Miranda, R. Conference Paper 2019 Microbiome characterization of cave-adapted and surface populations of the fish Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi, 1853)
Stahl, B.A., Peuß, R., McDole, B., Kenzior, A., Jaggard, J.B., Gaudenz, K., Krishnan, J., McGaugh, S.E., Duboue, E.R., Keene, A.C. and Rohner, N. Conference Paper 2019 Stable transgenesis in Astyanax mexicanus using the Tol2 transposase system
Powers, A.K., Garita-Alvarado, C., Rodiles, R., Berning, D.J., Gross, J.B. and Ornelas-García, C.P. Conference Paper 2019 Cranial plasticity in lake-dwelling Astyanax morphotypes corresponds to feeding preference
Stahl, B.A., Jaggard, J.B., Chin, J.S., Kowalko, J.E., Keene, A.C. and Duboué, E.R. Journal Article 2019 Manipulation of gene function in Mexican cavefish
Gluesenkamp, A. and McGaugh, S. Conference Paper 2019 The Texas Tetra Project
Xiong, S., Krishnan, J., Peuss, R. and Rohner, N. Conference Paper 2019 How cavefish adapt to food limited environment?
Kindl, G.H. and O’Quin, K.E. Journal Article 2019 On intra- and inter-specific variation in teleost scleral ossification
Worsham M1, Fernandes, V.F.L., Settle, A., Balaan, C., Lactaoen, K., Tuttle, L.J., Iwashita, M. and Yoshizawa, M.. Journal Article 2019 Behavioral tracking and neuromast imaging of Mexican cavefish.
Stockdale, W.T., Deal, O., Heintz, C., Rohner, N., and Mommersteeg, M.T.M. Conference Paper 2019 Glucose metabolism during heart regeneration in the Astyanax mexicanus
Gore, A., Swearer, A., Iben, J. and Weinstein, B. Conference Paper 2019 Cavefish: a model to study subcutaneous fat deposition
Blin, M. and Retaux, S. Journal Article 2019 Voir ou sentir, l’histoire d’ Astyanax mexicanus
Peuß, R., Zakibe, Z., Krishnan, J., Merryman, M.S., Baumann, D.P. and Rohner, N. Journal Article 2019 Gamete collection and In vitro fertilization of Astyanax mexicanus
Pierre, C., Torres-Paz, J., Froc, C., Callebert, J. and Rétaux, S. Conference Paper 2019 Functional and behavioral consequences of the mutation in monoamine oxidase (MAO) in the blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus
Chin, J.S.R., Loomis, C.L., Phan, T.A.N., Albert, L.T., Chang, L.P., Keene, A.C. and Duboué, E.R. Conference Paper 2019 Diminished stress responses in the Mexican blind cavefish
Potts, H., Stockdale, W.T., Choudhury, R.P. and Mommersteeg, M.T.M. Conference Paper 2019 Investigating the role of CD11b/ITGAM, a leukocyte adhesion protein, in cardiac regeneration
Borowsky, R., Luk, A. and Kim, R.S. Journal Article 2019 Sperm swimming behaviors are correlated with sperm haploid genetic variability in the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus
Keene, A.C. Conference Paper 2019 Genetic and evolutionary regulation of sleep-feeding interactions
Gil-Galvez, A., de la Calle Mustienes, E., Neto, A.., Bilandžija, H., Jeffery, W.R., Gómez-Skarmeta, J.L. Conference Paper 2019 The role of Cis-Regulatory elements in morphological adaptation to cave environment in Astyanax mexicanus
Hu, Z., Lemieux, M. and Mommersteeg, M. Conference Paper 2019 Differences in extracellular matrix deposition during heart regeneration and scarring in Astyanax mexicanus
Sears, C.R. Thesis 2019 Transcriptomic analysis of the effect of dark-rearing on Astyanax mexicanus
Maximum likelyhood tree for part of the Family Characidae showing the relationships of Astyanax jordani (Figure 10 in Oliveira et al. 2011)