Journal Article

Circadian Rhythms of Embryonic Development and Hatching in Fish: A Comparative Study of Zebrafish (Diurnal), Senegalese Sole (Nocturnal), and Somalian Cavefish (Blind)

Villamizar, N., Blanco-Vives, B., Oliveira, C., Dinis, M.T., Di Rosa, V., Negrini, P., Bertolucci, C. and Sanchez-Vazquez, F.J.

Record Number:
3010
Year:
2013
Journal:
Chronobiology International
Pages:
889-900
Volume:
30
Abstract:
During early development, most organisms display rhythmic physiological processes that are shaped by daily changes in their surrounding environment (i.e., light and temperature cycles). In fish, the effects of daily photocycles and their interaction with temperature during early developmental stages remain largely unexplored. We investigated the existence of circadian rhythms in embryonic development and hatching of three teleost species with different daily patterns of behavior: diurnal (zebrafish), nocturnal (Senegalese sole), and blind, not entrained by light (Somalian cavefish). To this end, fertilized eggs were exposed to three light regimes: 12 h of light: 12 h of darkness cycle (LD), continuous light (LL), or continuous darkness (DD); and three species-appropriate temperature treatments: 24 degrees C, 28 degrees C, or 32 degrees C for zebrafish and cavefish and 18 degrees C, 21 degrees C, or 24 degrees C for sole. The results pointed to the existence of daily rhythms of embryonic development and hatching synchronized to the LD cycle, with different acrophases, depending on the species: zebrafish embryos advanced their developmental stage during the light phase, whereas sole did so during the dark phase. In cavefish, embryogenesis occurred within 24 h post fertilization (hpf) at the same pace during day or night. The hatching rhythms appeared to be controlled by a clock mechanism that restricted or "gated" hatching to a particular time of day/night (window), so that embryos that reached a certain developmental state by that time hatch, whereas those that have not wait until the next available window. Under LL and DD conditions, hatching rhythms and the gating phenomenon persisted in cavefish, in zebrafish they split into ultradian bouts of hatching occurring at 12-18-h intervals, whereas in sole DD and LL produced a 24-h delay and advance, respectively. Hatching rates were best under the LD cycle and the reported optimal temperature for each species (95.2 +/- 2.7% of the zebrafish and 83.3 +/- 0.1% of the cavefish embryos hatched at 28 degrees C, and 93.1 +/- 2.9% of the sole embryos hatched at 21 degrees C). In summary, these results revealed that hatching rhythms in fish are endogenously driven by a time-keeping mechanism, so that the day and time of hatching are determined by the interplay between the developmental state (temperature-sensitive) and the circadian clock (temperature-compensated), with the particular phasing being determined by the diurnal/nocturnal behavior of the species.
Times Cited:
1
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