Subhash Babu and Nayar 2004
Holotype: ZSI (WGRS) CLT. No. V/F 13137.
Water well at Parappukara, Trichur District, Kerala State, India, 8.5 meters depth underground. 10°13'N, 76°15'E.
The Kerala area of south-western India, principally the area of the Western Ghats, is rich in subterranean species. There are at least three unique elements within this subterranean fauna that stand out as of great evolutionary interest.
First, there are at least eight subterranean fishes: Clariidae: H. krishnai, Horaglanis alikunhii, Horaglanis abdulkalami; Kryptoglanidae: Kryptoglanis shajii, Kryptoglanis undescribed species; Synbranchidae: Monopterus eapeni, Monopterus roseni, Monopterus digressus.
Second, there is a strongly fossorial amphibian in its own family: Nasikabatrachidae: Nasikabatrachus sahyadriensis Biju and Bossuyt 2003, sister family, genus and species to Sooglossidae, an amphibian family found only in the Seychelles archipelago) (Zachariah et al. 2012).
Both the fishes and the Crustacea appear to have originated in Gondwanan times and both have close relatives in Africa. It is hypothesised that the genus Horaglanis is related to Uegitglanis zammaranoi from Somalia (Menon 1951, Silas 2010) and Eurindicus is related to three west African species (the monotypic Euryrhyncoides holthuisi, Euryrhynchina edingtonae and Eurhynchina puteola (De Grave et al. 2018).
There is considerable evidence, both from morphology and molecules, that Horaglanis is very basal within Clariidae. de Pinna (1993, 1998) and Diogo et al. (2003) considered the skull structure of specie swithin the Clariidae and concluded that Uegitglanis was sister to all other species in the family and that Horaglanis was sister to Uegitglanis plus other species making it the most basal of all studied clariids. This conclusion was supported by Pavan-Kumar (2017) who compared mitochondrial COI sequences from one (unnamed) species of Horaglanis and 13 other Clariidae and showed that it is the sister group to all other species in the family (he did not include Uegitglanis in his analysis). [Note than Pavan-Kumar (2017) is a Peerj preprint that had not been refereed so its conclusions need to be taken with caution.]
(Raghavan, R., Ali, A. & Kakkasery, F. 2011. Horaglanis alikunhii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T172402A6884833.en. Downloaded on 07 July 2017).
As above only.
Only genus defined, species not known
Genbank HE819391.1 mt COI specimen voucher M-CCI-HL1
Genbank HE819392.1 mt COI specimen voucher M-CCI-HKA
Genbank HE819393.1 mt COI specimen voucher M-CCI-HKB
Genbank HE819394.1 mt COI specimen voucher M-CCI-HKC
Genbank HG937614.1 mt cytB specimen voucher M-CCI-HL
Genbank HG937613.1 mt cytB specimen voucher M-CCI-HKB
- Misra, K.S. (1976)
- Mercy, T.V.A. (1981)
- Mercy, T. V. A. (1981)
- Mercy, T. V. A. (1982)
- Mercy, T. V. A., Padmanabhan, K. G. and Pillai, N. K. (1982)
- Mercy, T. V. A. (1983)
- Mercy, T. V. A., Pillai, N. K. and Balasubramonian, N. K. (1984)
- Mercy, T. V. A. and Pillai, N. K. (1984/5)
- Talwar, P. K. and Jhingran, A. G. (1992)
- Ponniah, A.G. and Gopalakrishnan, A. (2000)
- Mercy, T.V.A. (2000)
- Mercy, T. V. A. and Pillai, N. K. (2001)
- Mercy, T. V. A., Pillai, N. K. and Balasubramonian, N. K. (2001)
- Babu, K.K.S. and Nayar, C.K.G. (2004)
- Kurup B.M. Radhakrishnan K.V. and Manojkumar T.G. (2004)
- Babu, K.K.S. (2012)
- Pavan-Kumar, A. (2017)
- De Grave, S., Arjun, C.P. and Raghavan, R. (2018)
- Mrudula, M., Bijoy Nandan, S. and Harikrishnan, M. (2019)
|Misra, K.S.||Book Section||1976||Horaglanis krishnai|
|Mercy, T.V.A.||Thesis||1981||Biology of the blind catfish of Kerala, Horaglanis krishnai Menon|
|Mercy, T. V. A.||Journal Article||1981||On the unique disposition of the valvula cerebelli in Horaglanis krishnai (Teleostei)|
|Mercy, T. V. A.||Journal Article||1982||On the presence of a forked barbel in the blind catfish Horaglanis krishnai Menon|
|Mercy, T. V. A., Padmanabhan, K. G. and Pillai, N. K.||Journal Article||1982||Morphological studies on the oocytes of the blind catfish Horaglanis krishnai Menon|
|Mercy, T. V. A.||Journal Article||1983||Studies on the air bladder of blind clariid Horaglanis krishnai Menon|
|Mercy, T. V. A., Pillai, N. K. and Balasubramonian, N. K.||Journal Article||1984||Studies on the oxygen consumption of the blind catfish Horaglanis krishnai|
|Mercy, T. V. A. and Pillai, N. K.||Journal Article||1984/5||The anatomy and histology of the alimentary tract of the blind cat-fish Horaglanis krishnai|
|Talwar, P. K. and Jhingran, A. G.||Book Section||1992||Genus Horaglanis and species Horaglanis krishnai|
|Ponniah, A.G. and Gopalakrishnan, A.||Book||2000||Endemic fish diversity of Western Ghats|
|Mercy, T.V.A.||Book Section||2000||Biology of an endemic blind catfish Horaglanis krishnai Menon|
|Mercy, T. V. A. and Pillai, N. K.||Journal Article||2001||Studies on the cranial osteology of the blind catfish Horaglanis krishnai menon (Pisces, Clariidae)|
|Mercy, T. V. A., Pillai, N. K. and Balasubramonian, N. K.||Journal Article||2001||Studies on certain aspects of behaviour in the blind catfish Horaglanis krishnia Menon|
|Babu, K.K.S. and Nayar, C.K.G.||Journal Article||2004||A new species of the blind fish Horaglanis Menon (Siluroidea: Clariidae) from Parappukara (Trichur District) and a new report of Horaglanis krishnai Menon from Ettumanur (Kottayam District), Kerala|
|Kurup B.M. Radhakrishnan K.V. and Manojkumar T.G.||Conference Paper||2004||Biodiversity status of fishes inhabiting rivers of Kerala (S. India) with special reference to endemism, threats and conservation measures|
|Babu, K.K.S.||Journal Article||2012||Horaglanis abdulkalami, a new hypogean blind catfish (Siluriformes: Clariidae) from Kerala, India|
|Pavan-Kumar, A.||Journal Article||2017||Molecular phylogeny of genus Horaglanis (Indian blind catfishes) within Family Clariidae|
|De Grave, S., Arjun, C.P. and Raghavan, R.||Journal Article||2018||The discovery of Euryrhynchidae (Crustacea: Decapoda) in India, with the description of a new genus and species|
|Mrudula, M., Bijoy Nandan, S. and Harikrishnan, M.||Conference Paper||2019||Taxonomic notes on subterranean fish collected from Kerala, India|