Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard 1859 (in part)
Arkansas and Missouri, USA.
Recorded from 35 caves in Missouri (15 confirmed by molecular data) and 5 caves in Arkansas (3 confirmed by molecular data) (Niemiller et al. 2013).
There are nine known and named taxa in the Family Amblyopsidae. Of these six are subterranean fishes with the usual troglomorphic characters of reduced eyes and pigment and permanent subterranean existence, and three are epigean fishes with normal eyes and pigment. Recent molecular and morphological evidence produced by Hart et al. (2020) demonstrates that the relationship between these hypogean and epigean fishes is not simple. There are four major clades within the Family:
1. Typhlichthys subterraneus and Typhlichthys eigenmanni are sister species and sister to this pair is Speoplatyrhinus poulsoni. However, T. subterraneus is quite clearly divided into two subgroups, one of which is closer to T. eigenmanni than it is to the other group of T. subterraneus. The only way to read the cladogram for this group is that it consists of three taxa, one of which is currently un-named. This clade are all subterranean fishes.
The two remaining clades contain one species each but their relationships to the other six species is ambiguous:
Given the fact that the distribution of Chologaster cornuta is very far from the distributions of the other taxa 3b seems the most parsimonious explanation. Amblyopsis hoosieri is not included in the paper of Hart et al. (in press) but one would expect it to be in group 2 above based on geography.
This analysis does not take into account the ten possible cryptic taxa, currently subsumed within Typhlichthys subterraneus, identified by Graening, Fenolio and Slay (2011), Niemiller et al. (2013) and Hart, Burress and Armbruster (2016).
MuG[NE] NT:3.1:2013 (Niemiller et al. 2013)
Over 1000 Typhlichthys eigenmanni (then thought to be T. subterraneus) were killed after pollution of Meramec Spring, Missouri when ammonium salts caused catastrophic deoxygenation Vandike (1981, 1984), Crunkilton (1985).
ASUMZ, AUM, CU, MDC, OKMNH, SIUC, UAFC, UF, UMMZ, USNM (Niemiller et al. 2013).
- Charlton, H.H. (1933)
- Compson, Z.G. (2004)
- Parenti, L.R. (2006)
- Romero, A. and Conner, M. (2007)
- Niemiller, M.L., Higgs, D.M. and Soares, D. (2013)
- Niemiller, M.L., Graening, G.O., Fenolio, D.B., Godwin, J.C., Cooley, J.R., Pearson, W.D., Fitzpatrick, B.M. and Near, T.J. (2013)
- Soares, D. Niemiller, M.L. and Higgs, D. (2014)
- Venarsky, M.P., Huntsman, B.M., Huryn, A.D., Benstead, J.P. and Kuhajda, B.R. (2014)
- Soares, D., Niemiller, M.L. and Higgs, D.M. (2016)
- Mouser, J. (2019)
- Niemiller, M.L., Taylor, S.J., Slay, M.E. and Hobbs, H.H. III (2019)
- Adams, G.L., Burr, B.M. and Warren, M.L. (2020)
- Hart, P.B., Niemiller, M.L., Burress, E.D., Armbruster, J.W., Ludt, W.B. and Chakrabarty, P. (2020)
- Mouser, J.B., Brewer, S.K., Niemiller, M.L., Mollenhauer, R. and Van Den Bussche, R.A. (2021)
- Mouser, J. (2022)
|Charlton, H.H.||Journal Article||1933||The optic tectum and its related fibre tracts in blind fishes. A. Troglichthys rosae and Typhlichthys eigenmanni|
|Compson, Z.G.||Thesis||2004||An isotopic examination of cave, spring and epigean trophic structures in Mammoth Cave National Park|
|Parenti, L.R.||Journal Article||2006||Typhlichthys eigenmanni Charlton, 1933, an available name for a blind cave fish (Teleostei: Amblyopsidae), differentiated on the basis of characters of the central nervous system|
|Romero, A. and Conner, M.||Journal Article||2007||Status report for the southern cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus in Arkansas|
|Niemiller, M.L., Higgs, D.M. and Soares, D.||Journal Article||2013||Evidence for hearing loss in amblyopsid cavefishes|
|Niemiller, M.L., Graening, G.O., Fenolio, D.B., Godwin, J.C., Cooley, J.R., Pearson, W.D., Fitzpatrick, B.M. and Near, T.J.||Journal Article||2013||Doomed before they are described? The need for conservation assessments of cryptic species complexes using an amblyopsid cavefish (Amblyopsidae: Typhlichthys) as a case study|
|Soares, D. Niemiller, M.L. and Higgs, D.||Journal Article||2014||Review article. Hearing and acoustic communication in cavefishes|
|Venarsky, M.P., Huntsman, B.M., Huryn, A.D., Benstead, J.P. and Kuhajda, B.R.||Journal Article||2014||Quantitative food web analysis supports the energy‑limitation hypothesis in cave stream ecosystems|
|Soares, D., Niemiller, M.L. and Higgs, D.M.||Journal Article||2016||Hearing in Cavefishes|
|Mouser, J.||Thesis||2019||Examining occurrence, life history, and ecology of cavefishes and cave crayfishes using both traditional and novel approaches|
|Niemiller, M.L., Taylor, S.J., Slay, M.E. and Hobbs, H.H. III||Book Section||2019||Biodiversity in the United States and Canada|
|Adams, G.L., Burr, B.M. and Warren, M.L.||Book Section||2020||Amblyopsidae: Cavefishes|
|Hart, P.B., Niemiller, M.L., Burress, E.D., Armbruster, J.W., Ludt, W.B. and Chakrabarty, P.||Journal Article||2020||Cave-adapted evolution in the North American Amblyopsid fishes Inferred using phylogenomics and geometric morphometrics|
|Mouser, J.B., Brewer, S.K., Niemiller, M.L., Mollenhauer, R. and Van Den Bussche, R.A.||Journal Article||2021||Refining sampling protocols for cavefishes and cave crayfishes to account for environmental variation|
|Mouser, J.||Journal Article||2022||Lithology and disturbance drive cavefish and cave crayfish occurrence in the Ozark Highlands ecoregion|