Niemiller, Prejean and Chakrabarty 2014 in Chakrabarty, Prejean and Niemiller 2014
Typhlichthys wyandotte Eigenmann 1905
Amblyopsis spelaea “N” Niemiller et al. 2013
Amblyopsis spelaea Woods and Inger 1957 (in part)
Holotype: INHS 106675 75.1mm SL. Paratypes: INHS 40424 (12), INHS 60574 (1), INHS 102504 (4), LSUMZ 17419 (1), LSUMZ 17420 (1), UMMZ 90379 (2), UMMZ 113550 (1), UMMZ 114890 (2), UMMZ 144604 (1), UMMZ 146992 (1), UMMZ 146994 (3), UMMZ 157174 (1), UMMZ 157175 (1), UMMZ 160944 (1), YPM 25304 (2), YPM 25305 (1).
Type locailty: Bronson’s Cave (White River Dr.) Spring Mill State Park, Lawrence County, Indiana, USA, 38°44'N, 86°25'W. Also recorded from: Twin Caves, near Mitchell, Lawrence County; Sibert’s Well Cave, beside Wyandotte Cave; Lost River, ca. 2 mi NE of Orangeville; Donaldson’s Cave, Spring Mills State Park, Lawrence County; Stream in Sibert’s Well Cave, Wyandotte, Crawford County; Stream in Sheep Cave, near Wyandotte, Crawford County; Stream in Bronson Cave, Spring Mill State Park, Lawrence County; “possibly” Donaldson farm caves near Indiana University; Twin Cave, Mitchell, Lawrence County; Donaldson Cave, Spring Mill State Park, Lawrence County; Blue Springs Caverns, Lawrence County.
Keith (1988, 1989) surveyed caves and springs in Indiana. He found populations in 45 sites in Indiana. Eleven of the 45 sites in Indiana recorded by Keith were springs (i.e. resurgences) which suggests that this species may exist also in the phreatic zone. Welch and Keith (1974) surveyed caves in the Hoosier natinal Fprest. A study of the ecology of Amblyopsis hoosieri (as A. spelaea) in Blue Spring Cave, Indiana was conducted by Welch (1972). [Romero ansd Bennis (1998) noted that "this species is known from about 1800 caves in Indiana”. This figure is clearly in error].
Inhabits cool (8-17oC) hypogean streams which have mixed mud/rock substrates in shoals, and mixed sand/silt substrates in pools (Burr and Warren 1986:219). Eleven of the 45 sites in Indiana recorded by Keith (1988, 1989) were springs (i.e. resurgences) which suggests that this species may exist also in the phreatic zone. A study of the ecology of A. hoosieri (as A. spelaea) in Blue Spring Cave, Indiana was conducted by Welch (1972).
Until recently all populations of the Northern Cavefish, distributed in southern Indiana and Northern Kentucky, were considered to be Amblyopsis spelaea. However, genetic, morphological and geographical evidence show that the populations north (Indiana) and south (Kentucky) of the Ohio River are two separate species with Amblyopsis spelaea confined to Kentucky and with Amblyopsis hoosieri confined to Indiana (Chakrabarty et al. 2014).
There are nine known and named taxa in the Family Amblyopsidae. Of these six are subterranean fishes with the usual troglomorphic characters of reduced eyes and pigment and permanent subterranean existence, and three are epigean fishes with normal eyes and pigment. Recent molecular and morphological evidence produced by Hart et al. (in press) demonstrates that the relationship between these hypogean and epigean fishes is not simple. There are four major clades within the Family:
1. Typhlichthys subterraneus and Typhlichthys eigenmanni are sister species and sister to this pair is Speoplatyrhinus poulsoni. However, T. subterraneus is quite clearly divided into two subgroups, one of which is closer to T. eigenmanni than it is to the other group of T. subterraneus. The only way to read the cladogram for this group is that it consists of three taxa, one of which is currently un-named. This clade are all subterranean fishes.
The two remaining clades contain one species each but their relationships to the other six species is ambiguous:
Given the fact that the distribution of Chologaster cornuta is very far from the distributions of the other taxa 3b seems the most parsimonious explanation. Amblyopsis hoosieri is not included in the paper of Hart et al. (in press) but one would expect it to be in group 2 above based on geography.
This analysis does not take into account the ten possible cryptic taxa, currently subsumed within Typhlichthys subterraneus, identified by Graening, Fenolio and Slay (2011), Niemiller et al. (2013) and Hart, Burress and Armbruster (2016).
Because Amblyopsis hoosieri was, for most of the time since 1842, thought to be Amblyopsis spelaea it is likely that there are numerous specimens in various museums in the USA that are actually Amblyopsis hoosieri.
- Eigenmann, C. H. (1909)
- Poulson, T. L. (1961)
- Poulson, T. L. (1963)
- Poulson, T. L. (1964)
- Mohr, C. E. and Poulson, T. L. (1966)
- Welch, N. M. (1972)
- Welch, N. M. and Keith, J. H. (1974)
- Keith, J. H. (1977)
- Keith, J. H. and Gray, L. M. (1979)
- Keith, J. H. and Poulson, T. L. (1981)
- Keith, J. H. and Powell, R. L. (1981)
- Keith, J. H. (1988)
- Keith, J. H. (1989)
- Keith, J.H. (1992)
- Keith, J.H., Bassett, J.L. and Duwelius, J.A. (1996)
- Poulson, T. L. (1997)
- Poulson, T. L. (1998)
- Niemiller, M.L. and Poulson, T.L. (2010)
- Chakrabarty, P., Prejean, J.A. and Niemiller, M.L. (2014)
- Armbruster, J., Niemiller, M.L. and Hart, P.B. (2016)
- Adams, G.L., Burr, B.M. and Warren, M.L. (2020)
|Eigenmann, C. H.||Book||1909||Cave vertebrates of America, a study in degenerative evolution|
|Poulson, T. L.||Thesis||1961||Cave adaptation in Amblyopsid fishes|
|Poulson, T. L.||Journal Article||1963||Cave adaptation in Amblyopsid fishes|
|Poulson, T. L.||Journal Article||1964||Life history and the control of population size in Amblyopsid fishes|
|Mohr, C. E. and Poulson, T. L.||Book||1966||The life of the cave|
|Welch, N. M.||Thesis||1972||Movement and ecology of the blind cave fish Amblyopsis spelaea|
|Welch, N. M. and Keith, J. H.||Journal Article||1974||Report on the occurence of the blindfish Amblyopsis spelaea DeKay in selected caves of the Hoosier National Forest|
|Keith, J. H.||Journal Article||1977||The "broken back syndrome"|
|Keith, J. H. and Gray, L. M.||Journal Article||1979||A preliminary study of the occurence of broken-back syndrome in the northern cave-fish (Amblyopsis spelaea) at Spring Mill State Park, Mitchell, Indiana|
|Keith, J. H. and Poulson, T. L.||Journal Article||1981||Broken-back syndrome in Amblyopsis spelaea, Donaldson-Twin Cave, Indiana|
|Keith, J. H. and Powell, R. L.||Journal Article||1981||Evaluation of Mayfields Cave, Monroe County, Indiana, for eligability as a National landmark|
|Keith, J. H.||Journal Article||1988||Distribution of Northern Cavefish, Amblyopsis spelaea DeKay, in Indiana and Kentucky and reccommendations for its protection|
|Keith, J. H.||Journal Article||1989||A report on a field survey to determine the status of the Northern Cavefish (Amblyopsis spelaea DeKay) in Indiana|
|Keith, J.H.||Report||1992||A report on the possible impacts of State Road 37 construction activities on cave fauna and karst features|
|Keith, J.H., Bassett, J.L. and Duwelius, J.A.||Book Section||1996||INDOT implementation of a memorandum of understanding to reduce the impacts of highway construction in Indiana karst|
|Poulson, T. L.||Book Section||1997||Biodiversity in the Mammoth Cave region|
|Poulson, T. L.||Journal Article||1998||Biology of cave fishes: A retrospective and prospective with emphasis on the Amblyopdidae|
|Niemiller, M.L. and Poulson, T.L.||Book Section||2010||Subterranean fishes of North America: Amblyopsidae|
|Chakrabarty, P., Prejean, J.A. and Niemiller, M.L.||Journal Article||2014||The Hoosier cavefish, a new and endangered species (Amblyopsidae, Amblyopsis) from the caves of southern Indiana|
|Armbruster, J., Niemiller, M.L. and Hart, P.B.||Journal Article||2016||Morphological evolution of the cave-, spring-, and swampfishes of the Amblyopsidae|
|Adams, G.L., Burr, B.M. and Warren, M.L.||Book Section||2020||Amblyopsidae: Cavefishes|