Typhlichthys subterraneus

Girard 1859

Typhlichthys subterraneus
Redrawn by Rhian Kendall from Woods and Inger (1957)


Typhlichthys osborni  Eigenmann 1905

Typhlichthys wyandotte  Eigenmann 1905

Typhlichthys eigenmanni  Hubbs 1938 (nomen nudum)

The common name is Southern Cavefish (Page et al. 2013, Adams et al. 2020)




Description based on a syntype series of three individuals: USNM 8563. This species is the type species by monotypy of the cave restricted genus Typhlichthys.


Alabama, Georgi, Kentucky, Tennessee, posssibly Arkansas, USA

Type locality: a well near Bowling Green, Kentucky, USA (37o00’N, 86o30’W), the exact location of the well is not known. The range is discontinuous, with a western component including central and southern Missouri, and northern Arkansas, and an eastern component which extends from the south‑central tip of Indiana, southwards through Kentucky, into central Tennessee, northern Alabama and the north west tip of Georgia (35-40oN, 85-95oW). The Mississippi River runs between these two areas and other major rivers divide the range. Although once thought to be resident in Oklahoma this species is in fact absent from this state. Mayden and Cross (1983) have shown that all records of T. subterraneus from Oklahoma are in fact of Troglichthys rosae. Records from Greene County, Missouri have been shown by Jones and Taber (1985) to be in error and therefore the indication in Woods and Inger (1957:245) that T. subterraneus and T. rosae are sympatric no longer holds. These two species do not overlap in distribution. In Mammoth cave, Kentucky, but nowhere else, this species coexists with A. spelaea and Woods and Inger (1957) have suggested that this is because of competitive exclusion. This range lies within an area bounded by the southernmost limit of glaciation and the northernmost limit of the Cretaceous Mississippi embayment. In Mammoth Cave, Kentucky this species coexists with Amblyopsis spelaea and in Key Cave, Alabama with Speoplatyrhinus poulsoni.

Niemiller et al. (2016) report a significant range extension for the species to Catoosa Co. Georgia.


Inhabits cool (10‑14oC) lentic waters over substata of mixed gravel, sand, and mud (Burr and Warren 1986:221). The preferred habitat of this species is in shallow streams fed by vertical shaft drains and with a moderate food supply (Poulson 1961, 1963 and pers. comm.). Schubert (1993), Schubert, Nielsen and Noltie (1993) and Schubert and Noltie (1995) made an experimental study of the substrate preference of this species. In all tests it significantly preferred cobbles to any other substrate. Cobbles have interstices large enough for the fishes to hide in and they spent much time there. Schubert and Noltie (1996) studied feeding. Compson (2004) used an isotopic study to show that T. subterraneaus, and probably also Amblyopsis spelaea, is a top predator within the cave ecosystem (see also Helf and Olson 2017). This species was known from Hidden River Cave but was extirpated from it, along with all other naturally occuring fauna, by intense pollution by sewage. After this problem was dealt with the natural fauna slowly recolonised the cave and T. subterraneus reappeared in 1993 and was still present in 2014 (Lewis et al. 1982, Lewis 1995, Jones and Pearson 1997, Lewis et al. 2015, Helf and Olson 2017 section 14.4.1, Table 14.3).


Until the revision of Woods and Inger (1957) there were three nominal species of Typhlichthys, a fourth nominal species was based on a nomen nudum and was therefore invalid (Poly and Proudlove 2004). The population from Sloans Valley Cave, Pulaski County, Kentucky differs in a number of ways from other populations and may represent an undescribed taxon (Cooper and Beiter 1972, Burr and Warren 1986:221). No further details of this population have been published. Genetically, however, the populations are very distinct, even those that are close geographically (Swofford, Branson, and Sievert 1980). This genetic information supports the hypothesis of Cooper and Iles (1971) that morphological similarity may be more a matter of similar selective regimes resulting in parallel evolution than any significant gene flow which is difficult to support because of the major river divides to the range. Barr and Holsinger (1985) support this idea and suggest that the “species” is a composed of several local phylogenetic species separated by extrinsic dispersal barriers (i.e. rivers and non‑karstic geology). Swofford, Branson and Sievert (1980) however suggest that morphological and genetic divergence have been uncoupled.  See below for more recent data.

Rosen (1962) has suggested that all Amblyopsid fishes be placed in a separate order, the Amblyopsiformes. This suggestion has not been followed by subsequent authors (e.g. Greenwood, Rosen, Weitzman and Myers 1966, Nelson, Grande and Wison 2016).

There are nine known and named taxa in the Family Amblyopsidae. Of these six are subterranean fishes with the usual troglomorphic characters of reduced eyes and pigment and permanent subterranean existence, and three are epigean fishes with normal eyes and pigment. Recent molecular and morphological evidence produced by Hart et al. (2020) demonstrates that the relationship between these hypogean and epigean fishes is not simple. There are four major clades within the Family:

1. Typhlichthys subterraneus and Typhlichthys eigenmanni are sister species and sister to this pair is Speoplatyrhinus poulsoni.  However, T. subterraneus is quite clearly divided into two subgroups, one of which is closer to T. eigenmanni than it is to the other group of T. subterraneus. The only way to read the cladogram for this group is that it consists of three taxa, one of which is currently un-named. This clade are all subterranean fishes.

2. Two of the epigean fishes, Forbesichthys papilliferus and Forbesichthys agassizii, are sister to each other and their sister is the hypogean species Amblyopsis spelaea.

The two remaining clades contain one species each but their relationships to the other six species is ambiguous:

3a. Sister to the above groups is epigean Chologaster cornuta with hypogean Troglichthys rosae sister to all other taxa.

3b. Sister to the above groups is hypogean Troglichthys rosae with epigean Chologaster cornuta sister to all other taxa.

Given the fact that the distribution of Chologaster cornuta is very far from the distributions of the other taxa 3b seems the most parsimonious explanation. Amblyopsis hoosieri is not included in the paper of Hart et al. (in press) but one would expect it to be in group 2 above based on geography.

This analysis does not take into account the ten possible cryptic taxa, currently subsumed within Typhlichthys subterraneus, identified by Graening, Fenolio and Slay (2011), Niemiller et al. (2013) and Hart, Burress and Armbruster (2016).

Conservation Status

MuG [NT:3.1:2014] NT:3.1:2013 (Niemiller et al. 2013)

(NatureServe. 2014. Typhlichthys subterraneus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: Downloaded on 10 July 2017).

Threatened (Branson 1981), Special concern (Burr and Warren 1986:221), VU D2 (IUCN 1996, 2000), G4 (NatureServe 2001).

Museum Holdings

KU 12853, SIUC 4129, 4130, 4131 (Mayden and Cross 1983); UMMZ 136379 (4 specimens) (Jones and Taber 1985); UAIC 656, AU 2067 (Cooper and Iles1971); UMMZ 133844 (formerly catalogued asTroglichthys rosae), ASUMZ 9064 (Paige, Tumlinson, and Mc Daniel 1981); also specimens at USNM, CAS‑SU, FMHM, MU, KU (Woods and Inger 1957); BMNH. KU:KUIT:8754, UAIC 14148.01 (Malmstrom et al. 2017, used for genome sequencing).

Probably many other specimens in museums in the USA.


Internet Resources


Key References

Davidson, R. Book 1840 An excursion to the Mammoth Cave and the Barrens of Kentucky,with some notices of the early settlement of the state
Thompson, W. Journal Article 1844 Notice of the blind-fish, crayfish and insects from the Mammoth Cave, Kentucky
Girard, C. Journal Article 1859 Ichthyological notices
Packard, A. S. and Putnam, F. W. Book 1872 The Mammoth Cave and its inhabitants, a description of the fishes, insects and crustaceans found in the caves, etc
Packard, A. S. Book 1888 The cave fauna of North America, with remarks on the anatomy of the brain and origin of the blind species
Packard, A.S. Journal Article 1894 On the origin of the subterranean fauna of North America
Cox, U.O. Journal Article 1905 A revision of the cave fishes of North America
Eigenmann, C.H. Book 1909 Cave vertebrates of America, a study in degenerative evolution
Verrier, M. L. Journal Article 1929 Observations sur le comportement d'un poisson cavernicole: Typhlichthys osbornii Eigenmann
Bailey, V. Journal Article 1933 Fishes of the caves and cave region
Bailey, V Journal Article 1933 Cave life of Kentucky: Mainly in the Mammoth Cave region
Woods, L.P. and Inger, R.F. Journal Article 1957 The cave, spring and swamp fishes of the family Amblyopsidae of central and eastern United States
Poulson, T.L. Thesis 1961 Cave adaptation in Amblyopsid fishes
Rosen, D.E. Journal Article 1962 Comments on the relationships of the North American cave fishes of the family Amblyopsidae
Clay, W.M. Book 1962 A field manual of Kentucky fishes
Poulson, T.L. Journal Article 1963 Cave adaptation in Amblyopsid fishes
Cooper, J.E. Journal Article 1966 Preliminary observations on the biology of Shelta Cave, Alabama
Barr, T.C. Journal Article 1967 Ecological studies in the Mammoth Cave System of Kentucky. I.The biota
Branson, B.A. Journal Article 1967 [Not known]
Poulson, T.L. Journal Article 1968 Aquatic cave communities
Poulson, T. L. Journal Article 1969 Population size, density and regulation in cave fishes
Cooper, J. E. Journal Article 1969 Biological studies in Shelta Cave, Alabama
Cooper, J. E. and Cooper, M. R. Journal Article 1971 Studies on the aquatic ecology of Shelta Cave, Huntsville, Alabama
Barr, T.C. and Kuehne, R.A. Journal Article 1971 Ecological studies in the Mammoth Cave System of Kentucky. II. The Ecosystem
Cooper, J. E. and Iles, A. Journal Article 1971 The Southern Cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus, at the southeastern periphery of its range
Cooper, J. E. Journal Article 1971 Interesting new locality records for the southern cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard (Pisces, Amblyopsidae)
Cooper, J. E. and Beiter, D. P. Journal Article 1972 The Southern Cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus (Pisces, Amblyopsidae), in the eastern Mississippian Plateau of kentuck
Cooper, J.E. Journal Article 1974 New distributional and ecological data for Typhlichthys subterraneus (Pisces, Amblyopsidae) and subterranean Gyrinophilus (Amphibia, Plethodontidae)
Cooper, J.E. Thesis 1975 Ecological and behavioural studies in Shelta Cave, Alabama, with emphasis on decapod crustaceans
Clay, W.M. Book 1975 The fishes of Kentucky
Bechler, D.L. Journal Article 1976 Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard (Pisces, Amblyopsidae) in the Jackson Plain of Tennessee
Kalayil, P.K. and Clay, W.M. Journal Article 1976 Immumological characteristics and relationships of tissue antigens in Amblyopsid fishes
Swofford, D.L. Thesis 1976 Genetic variability, population differentiation and biochemical relationships in the family Amblyopsidae
McNulty, J. A. Journal Article 1978 Fine ultrastucture of the pineal organ of the troglodytic fish Typhlichyes subterraneous
Smith, V. J. Thesis 1980 Some aspects of the life history of the southern cavefish (Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard) in Missouri
Bechler, D.L. Thesis 1980 The evolution of agonistic behaviour in amblyopsid fishes
Cooper, J.E. Book Section 1980 Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard Southern cavefish
Duchon, K. and Lisowski, E.A. Journal Article 1980 Draft environmental assessment of Lock and Dam Six, Green River Navigation Project, on Mammoth Cave National Park
Swofford, D.L., Branson, B.A. and Sievert, G.A. Journal Article 1980 Genetic differentiation of cavefish populations (Amblyopsidae)
Paige, K. N., Tumlinson, C. R. and McDaniel, V. R. Journal Article 1981 A second record of Typhlichthys subterraneus (Pisces, Amblyopsidae) from Arkansas, USA
Bechler, D.L. Journal Article 1981 Behavioral studies on the Amblyopsidae; the cave, spring and swamp fish
Bechler, D.L. Journal Article 1981 Agonistic behaviour in the Amblyopsidae; the cave, spring and swamp fishes
Vandike, J.E. Journal Article 1981 The effects of the November 1981 liquid fertiliser pipeline break on groundwater in Phelps County, Missouri
Branson, B.A. Journal Article 1981 Endangered, threatened and rare animals and plants of Kentucky
Lisowski, E.A. and Poulson, T.L. Book Section 1981 Impacts of Lock and Dam Six on base level ecosystems in Mammoth Cave
Lewis, J.J., Lewis, T.M. and Eckstein, J. Book Section 1982 A biological reconnaissance of a poluted cave stream: the Hidden River grounwater basin
Swofford, D.L. Thesis 1982 Genetic variability, population differentiation and biochemical relationships in the family Amblyopsidae
Bechler, D.L. Journal Article 1983 The evolution of agonistic behaviour in Amblyopsid fishes
Mayden, R. L. and Cross, F. B. Journal Article 1983 Reevaluation of the Oklahoma records of the southern cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus (Amblyopsidae)
Lisowski, E. A. Journal Article 1983 Distribution, habitat and behaviour of the Kentucky cave shrimp Palaemonias ganteri Hay
Vandike, J.E. Book Section 1984 Hydrogeologic aspects of the November 1981 liquid fertiliser pipeline break on groundwater in the Meramec Spring recharge area, Phelps County, Missouri
Poulson, T. L. Journal Article 1985 Evolutionary reduction by neutral mutations: Plausibility arguments and data from Amblyopsid fishes and Linyphiid spiders
Crunkilton, R. Book Section 1985 Subterranean contamination of Meramec Spring by ammonium nitrate and urea fertiliser and its implications for rare cave biota
Jones, S.R. and Taber, C.A. Journal Article 1985 A range revision for western populations of the southern cavefish Typhlichthys subterraneus (Amblyopsidae)
Burr, B.M. and Warren, M.L. Journal Article 1986 A distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes
Lewis, J.J. Thesis 1988 The systematics, zoogeography and life history of the troglobitic Isopods of the Interior Plateaus of the eastern United States
Palunas, M.J. Journal Article 1989 Life histories of the Amblyopsidae with an emphasis on reproductive cycles
Branson, B.A. Journal Article 1991 The Mammoth Cave blindfish
Poulson, T.L. Book Section 1992 The Mammoth Cave ecosystem
Poulson, T. L. Book Section 1992 Case studies of groundwater biomonitoring in the Mammoth Cave region
Schubert, A.L.S., Nielsen, C.D. and Noltie, D.B. Journal Article 1993 Habitat use and gas bubble disease in southern cavefish (Typhlichthys subterraneus)
Bergstrom, D.E., Noltie, D.B. and Holtsford, T.P. Journal Article 1995 Ozark cavefish genetics: The phylogeny of Missouri's Ozark cavefish (Amblyopsis rosae) and southern cavefish (Typhlichthys subterraneus)
Pearson, W.D. and Boston, C.H. Report 1995 Distribution and status of the Northern Cavefish, Amblyopsis spelaea: Final report to the Indiana Department of Natural Resources Division of Fish and Wildlife Program
Schubert, A. L. S. and Noltie, D. B. Journal Article 1995 Laboratory studies of substrate and microhabitat selection in southern cavefish (Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard)
Lewis, J.J. Book Section 1995 The devastation and recovery of caves and karst affected by industrialisation
Schubert, A. L. S. and Noltie, D. B. Journal Article 1996 Effects if feeding regime on prey consumption and weight change rate in captive southern cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard (Pisces: Percopsiformes: Amblyopsidae)
Bergstrom, D.E., Noltie, D.B. and Holtsford, T.P. Book Section 1997 Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography of the family Amblyopsidae
Campbell, C.W., Sullivan, S.M. and Livingston, L.R. Book Section 1997 Modeling of a cave ecosystem
Green, S.M. and Romero, A. Journal Article 1997 Responses to light in two blind cave fishes (Amblyopsis spelaea and Typhlichthys subterraneus) (Pisces: Amblyopsidae)
Jones, T.G. and Pearson, W.D. Conference Paper 1997 The recovery of the aquatic biological community in Hidden River Cave, Horse Cave, Kentucky
Bergstrom, D.E., Noltie, D.B. and Holtsford, T.P. Journal Article 1998 The phylogeny, historical biogeography, and evolution of troglobitism in Amblyopsis rosae (Ozark cavefish) and Typhlichthys subterraneus (southern cavefish)
Romero, A. Journal Article 1998 Threatened fishes of the world: Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard, 1860 (Amblyopsidae)
Elliott, W.R. Book Section 1998 Conservation of the North American cave and karst biota
Romero, A. Journal Article 1998 Threatened fishes of the world: Amblyopsis rosae (Eigenmann, 1898) (Amblyopsidae)
Romero, A. Journal Article 1998 Threatened fishes of the world: Speoplatyrhinus poulsoni Cooper and Kuehne, 1974 (Amblyopsidae)
Pearson, W.D. and Jones, T.G. Report 1998 Final Report based on a faunal inventory of subterranean streams and development of a cave aquatic biological monitoring program using a modified index of biotic integrity
Romero, A. and Bennis, L. Journal Article 1998 Threatened fishes of the world: Amblyopsis spelaea De Kay, 1842 (Amblyopsidae)
Noltie, D. B. and Wicks, C.M. Journal Article 2001 How hydrogeology has shaped the ecology of Missouri's Ozark cavefish, Amblyopsis rosae, and southern cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus: Insights on the sightless from understanding the underground
Poulson, T. Journal Article 2001 Morphological and physiological correlates of evolutionary reduction of metabolic rate among amblyopsid cave fishes
Lewis, J.J. Report 2002 Conservation assessment for Southern cavefish (Typhlichthys subterraneus)
Aley, T., Ashley, D.C., Elliott, W.R., McGlimsey, M., Weaver, D. and Beard, J. Book 2002 Conserving Missouri's caves and karst
Poly, WJ and Wetzel, JE Journal Article 2003 Transbrachioral spawning: novel reproductive strategy observed for the pirate perch Aphredodereus sayanus (Aphredoderidae)
Aumiller, S.R. and Noltie, D.B. Journal Article 2003 Chemoreceptive responses of the southern cavefish Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard, 1860 (Pisces, Amblyopsidae) to conspecifics and prey
Elliott, W.R. Book 2003 A guide to Missouri's cave life
Poly, W.J. and Proudlove, G.S. Journal Article 2004 Family Amblyopsdae Bonaparte 1846
Compson, Z.G. Thesis 2004 An isotopic examination of cave, spring and epigean trophic structures in Mammoth Cave National Park
Romero, A. and Woodward, J.S. Journal Article 2005 On white fish and black men: Did Stephen Bishop really discover the blind cave fish of Mammoth Cave
Ruhl, M Thesis 2005 Flow reversal events increase the abundance of nontroglomorphic fish in the subterranean rivers of Mammoth Cave National Park
Romero, A. and Conner, M. Journal Article 2007 Status report for the southern cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus in Arkansas
Elliott, W.R. Journal Article 2007 Zoogeography and biodiversity of Missouri cave and karst
Niemiller, ML and Fitzpatrick, BM Journal Article 2008 Phylogenetics of the Southern cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus: Implications for conservation and management
Aley, T., Aley, C., Moss, P. and Hertzler, T. Journal Article 2008 Hydrogeological characteristics of delineated recharge areas for 40 biologically significant cave and spring systems in Missouri, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Illinois
Romero, A., Connor, M.S. and Vaughan, G.L. Journal Article 2010 Population Status of the Southern Cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus in Arkansas
Niemiller, M. L., Near, T. J. and Fitzpatrick, B. M. Journal Article 2011 Delimiting species using multilocus data: Diagnosing cryptic diversity in the Southern Cavefish, Typhlichthys Subterraneus (Teleostei: Amblyopsidae)
Cooper, J.E. and Cooper, M.R. Journal Article 2011 Observations on the biology of the endangered stygobitic shrimp Palaemonias alabamae, with notes on P. ganteri (Decapoda: Atyidae)
Niemiller, M.L., McCandless, J.R., Reynolds, R.G., Caddle, J., Near, T.J., Tillquist, C.R., Pearson, W.D. and Fitzpatrick, B.M. Journal Article 2012 Effects of climatic and geological processes during the Pleistocene on the evolutionary history of the Northern Cavefish, Amblyopsis Spelaea (Teleostei: Amblyopsidae)
Niemiller, M.L. and Fitzpatrick, B.M. Journal Article 2012 Status and life history of the amblyopsid cavefishes in Kentucky
Niemiller, M.L., Graening, G.O., Fenolio, D.B., Godwin, J.C., Cooley, J.R., Pearson, W.D., Fitzpatrick, B.M. and Near, T.J. Journal Article 2013 Doomed before they are described? The need for conservation assessments of cryptic species complexes using an amblyopsid cavefish (Amblyopsidae: Typhlichthys) as a case study
Niemiller, M.L., Fitzpatrick, B.M., Shah, P., Schmitz, L. and Near, T.J. Journal Article 2013 Evidence for repeated loss of selective constraint in rhodopsin of amblyopsid cavefishes (Teleostei: Amblyopsidae)
Niemiller, M.L. and Fitzpatrick, B.M. Report 2013 Status, life history, and phylogenetics of amblyopsid cavefishes in Kentucky
Niemiller, M.L. and Zigler, K.S. Journal Article 2013 Patterns of cave biodiversity and endemism in the Appalachians and interior plateau of Tennessee
Niemiller, M.L., Higgs, D.M. and Soares, D. Journal Article 2013 Evidence for hearing loss in amblyopsid cavefishes
Soares, D. Niemiller, M.L. and Higgs, D. Journal Article 2014 Review article. Hearing and acoustic communication in cavefishes
Venarsky, M.P., Huntsman, B.M., Huryn, A.D., Benstead, J.P. and Kuhajda, B.R. Journal Article 2014 Quantitative food web analysis supports the energy‑limitation hypothesis in cave stream ecosystems
Lewis, J.J., Lewis, S. and Nims, P. Report 2015 Observations on the ecosystem of Hidden River Cave bioinventory: Community cencus and water quality analysis
Niemiller, M.L., Zigler, K.S., Hart, P.B., Kuhajda, B.R., Armbruster, J., Ayala, B.N. and Engel, A.S. Journal Article 2016 First definitive record of a stygobiotic fish (Percopsiformes, Amblyopsidae, Typhlichthys) from the Appalachians karst region in the eastern United States
Soares, D., Niemiller, M.L. and Higgs, D.M. Journal Article 2016 Hearing in Cavefishes
Hart, PB Thesis 2016 Diversity and conservation of the Southern Cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus
Niemiller, M.L., Zigler, K.S., Stephen, C.D.R., Carter, E.T., Paterson, A.T., Taylor, S.J. and Engel, A.S. Journal Article 2016 Vertebrate fauna in caves of eastern tennessee within the Appalachians karst region, USA
Armbruster, J., Niemiller, M.L. and Hart, P.B. Journal Article 2016 Morphological evolution of the cave-, spring-, and swampfishes of the Amblyopsidae
Burress, P.B.H., Burress, E.D. and Armbruster, J. Journal Article 2017 Body shape variation within the Southern Cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus (Percopsiformes: Amblyopsidae)
Malmstrøm, M., Matschiner, M., Tørresen, O.K., Jakobsen K.S. and Jentoft, S. Journal Article 2017 Whole genome sequencing data and de novo draft assemblies for 66 teleost species
Toomey, R.., Hobbs, H.H. and Olson, R.A. Book Section 2017 An orientation to Mammoth Cave and this volume
White, W.B. and White, E.L. Book Section 2017 Hydrology and hydrogeology of Mammoth Cave
Poulson, T.L. Book Section 2017 Terrestrial cave ecology of the Mammoth Cave region
Helf, K. and Olson, R.A. Book Section 2017 Subsurface aquatic ecology of Mammoth Cave
Culver, D.C. and Hobbs, H.H. Book Section 2017 Biodiversity of Mammoth Cave
Hobbs, H.H., Olson, R., Winkler, E.G. and Culver, D.C. Book 2017 Mammoth Cave: A Human and Natural History
O’Dell, G.A. and George, A.I. Journal Article 2018 The celebrated black explorer Stephen Bishop and Mammoth Cave: Observations by an English journalist in 1853
Ponta, G.M.L., McGregor, S.W. and Jones, S.W. Report 2018 Hydrogeological assessment of Key Cave, Lauderdale County, Alabama
Niemiller, M.L., Taylor, S.J., Slay, M.E. and Hobbs, H.H. III Book Section 2019 Biodiversity in the United States and Canada
Trimboli, S.R. and Toomey, R.S. Journal Article 2019 Temperature and reverse-flow patterns of the River Styx, Mammoth Cave, Kentucky
Hart, P.B., Niemiller, M.L., Burress, E.D., Armbruster, J.W., Ludt, W.B. and Chakrabarty, P. Journal Article 2020 Cave-adapted evolution in the North American Amblyopsid fishes Inferred using phylogenomics and geometric morphometrics
Holler Jr., C., Mays, J.D., and Niemiller, M.L Journal Article 2020 The fauna of caves and other subterranean habitats of North Carolina, USA
Soares, D., and Niemiller, M.L. Journal Article 2020 Variation in cephalic neuromasts surface and cave-dwelling fishes of the family Amblyopsidae (Teleostei: Percopsiformes)
Groves, C., White, W. ,White, B., Palmer, A. and Palmer, P. Web Page 2020 Karst hydrogeology of Mammoth Cave National Park: Why is the world’s longest known cave here?
Helf, K., Olson, R. and Toomey, R. Web Page 2020 Mammoth Cave Ecology
White, W.B. Web Page 2020 A blueprint for the assessment of inorganic carbon flow paths in the Great Onyx groundwater basin, Mammoth Cave National Park
Ponta, G.M.L., McGregor, S.W. and Blackwood, R. Conference Paper 2020 Time series hydrologic monitoring within karst aquifers of Key Cave and Cathedral Caverns, Alabama
Ponta, G. Web Page 2020 Monitoring karst aquifers in north Alabama for the protection of sensitive aquatic biota
Williams, J., Groves, C. and Bledsoe, L.A. Web Page 2020 In-cave tracing to measure discharge in the Great Onyx flow system, Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky
Adams, G.L., Burr, B.M. and Warren, M.L. Book Section 2020 Amblyopsidae: Cavefishes
Zigler, K.S., Niemiller, M.L., Stephen, C.D.R., Ayala, B.N. Milne, M.A., Gladstone, N.S., Engel, A.S., Jensen, J.B., Camp, C.D., Ozier, J.C. and Cressler, A. Journal Article 2020 Biodiversity from caves and other subterranean habitats of Georgia, USA
Mouser, J.B., Brewer, S.K., Niemiller, M.L., Mollenhauer, R. and Van Den Bussche, R.A. Journal Article 2021 Refining sampling protocols for cavefishes and cave crayfishes to account for environmental variation
Niemiller, M.L., Helf, K. and Toomey, R.S. Journal Article 2021 Mammoth Cave: A hotspot of subterranean biodiversity in the United States
Bledsoe, L.A., Groves, C. and Toomey, R. Journal Article 2021 The Mammoth Cave National Park world heritage site
Mouser, J. Journal Article 2022 Lithology and disturbance drive cavefish and cave crayfish occurrence in the Ozark Highlands ecoregion