Metadata

Typhlichthys subterraneus

Girard 1859

Typhlichthys subterraneus
Redrawn by Rhian Kendall from Woods and Inger (1957)
ORDERSUB-ORDERFAMILY
PercopsiformesPercopsiformesAmblyopsidae

Synonyms

Typhlichthys osborni  Eigenmann 1905

Typhlichthys wyandotte  Eigenmann 1905

Typhlichthys eigenmanni  Hubbs 1938 (nomen nudum)

Country

USA

Types

Description based on a syntype series of three individuals: USNM 8563. This species is the type species by monotypy of the cave restricted genus Typhlichthys.

Distribution

Type locality: a well near Bowling Green, Kentucky, USA (37o00’N, 86o30’W), the exact location of the well is not known. The range is discontinuous, with a western component including central and southern Missouri, and northern Arkansas, and an eastern component which extends from the south‑central tip of Indiana, southwards through Kentucky, into central Tennessee, northern Alabama and the north west tip of Georgia (35-40oN, 85-95oW). The Mississippi River runs between these two areas and other major rivers divide the range. Although once thought to be resident in Oklahoma this species is in fact absent from this state. Mayden and Cross (1983) have shown that all records of T. subterraneus from Oklahoma are in fact of Amblyopsis rosae. Records from Greene County, Missouri have been shown by Jones and Taber (1985) to be in error and therefore the indication in Woods and Inger (1957:245) that T. subterraneus and A. rosae are sympatric no longer holds. These two species do not overlap in distribution. In Mammoth cave, Kentucky, but nowhere else, this species coexists with A. spelaea and Woods and Inger (1957) have suggested that this is because of competitive exclusion. This range lies within an area bounded by the southernmost limit of glaciation and the northernmost limit of the Cretaceous Mississippi embayment. In Mammoth Cave, Kentucky this species coexists with Amblyopsis spelaea and in Key Cave, Alabama with Speoplatyrhinus poulsoni (p.000).

Niemiller et al. (2016) report a significant range extension for the species to Catoosa Co. Georgia.

Habitat

Inhabits cool (10‑14oC) lentic waters over substata of mixed gravel, sand, and mud (Burr and Warren, 1986:221). The preferred habitat of this species is in shallow streams fed by vertical shaft drains and with a moderate food supply (Poulson, 1961, 1963 and pers. comm.). Schubert (1993), Schubert, Nielsen and Noltie (1993) and Schubert and Noltie (1995) made an experimental study of the substrate preference of this species. In all tests it significantly preferred cobbles to any other substrate. Cobbles have interstices large enough for the fishes to hide in and they spent much time there. Schubert and Noltie (1996) studied feeding.

Systematics

Until the revision of Woods and Inger (1957) there were three nominal species of Typhlichthys, a fourth nominal species was based on a nomen nudum and was therefore invalid (Poly and Proudlove 2004). Only one species is now recognised since all known populations but one (see below) are very similar in morphology. The population from Sloans Valley Cave, Pulaski County, Kentucky differs in a number of ways from other populations and may represent an undescribed taxon (Cooper and Beiter 1972; Burr and Warren 1986:221). No further details of this population have been published. Genetically, however, the populations are very distinct, even those that are close geographically (Swofford, Branson, and Sievert 1980). This genetic information supports the hypothesis of Cooper and Iles (1971) that morphological similarity may be more a matter of similar selective regimes resulting in parallel evolution than any significant gene flow which is difficult to support because of the major river divides to the range. Barr and Holsinger (1985) support this idea and suggest that the “species” is a composed of several local phylogenetic species separated by extrinsic dispersal barriers (i.e. rivers and non‑karstic geology). Swofford, Branson and Sievert (1980) however suggest that morphological and genetic divergence have been uncoupled.  See below for more recent data.

Rosen (1962) has suggested that all Amblyopsid fishes be placed in a separate order, the Amblyopsiformes. This suggestion has not been followed by subsequent authors (e.g. Greenwood, Rosen, Weitzman, and Myers 1966; Nelson Grande amd Wison 2016).

Conservation Status

MuG [NT:3.1:2014] NT:3.1:2013 (Niemiller et al. 2013)

(NatureServe. 2014. Typhlichthys subterraneus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T22599A18236225.en. Downloaded on 10 July 2017).

Threatened (Branson 1981), Special concern (Burr and Warren 1986:221), VU D2 (IUCN 1996, 2000), G4 (NatureServe 2001).

Museum Holdings

KU 12853, SIUC 4129, 4130, 4131 (Mayden and Cross, 1983); UMMZ 136379 (4 specimens) (Jones and Taber, 1985); UAIC 656, AU 2067 (Cooper and Iles, 1971); UMMZ 133844 (formerly catalogued as Amblyopsis rosae), ASUMZ 9064 (Paige, Tumlinson, and Mc Daniel, 1981); also specimens at USNM, CAS‑SU, FMHM, MU, KU (Woods and Inger, 1957); BMNH. Probably many other specimens in museums in the USA.

ANSP, AUM, CAS, CMN, FMNH, KU, MCZ, MOSU, SIUC, TU, UAIC, UF, UL, UMMZ, USNM, UTIC, YPM (Niemiller et al. 2013)

Key References

Cox, U. O. Journal Article 1905 A revision of the cave fishes of North America
Eigenmann, C. H. Journal Article 1909 Cave vertebrates of America, a study in degenerative evolution
Verrier, M. L. Journal Article 1929 Observations sur le comportement d'un poisson cavernicole: Typhlichthys osbornii Eigenmann
Woods, L. P. and Inger, R. F. Journal Article 1957 The cave, spring and swamp fishes of the family Amblyopsidae of central and eastern United States
Poulson, T. L. Thesis 1961 Cave adaptation in Amblyopsid fishes
Rosen, D. E. Journal Article 1962 Comments on the relationships of the North American cave fishes of the family Amblyopsidae
Poulson, T. L. Journal Article 1963 Cave adaptation in Amblyopsid fishes
Barr, T. C. Journal Article 1967 Ecological studies in the Mammoth Cave System of Kentucky. I.The biota
Poulson, T. L. Journal Article 1969 Population size, density and regulation in cave fishes
Barr, T. C. and Kuehne, R. A. Journal Article 1971 Ecological studies in the Mammoth Cave System of Kentucky. II. The Ecosystem
Cooper, J. E. and Iles, A. Journal Article 1971 The Southern Cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus, at the southeastern periphery of its range
Cooper, J. E. Journal Article 1971 Interesting new locality records for the southern cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard (Pisces, Amblyopsidae)
Cooper, J. E. and Beiter, D. P. Journal Article 1972 The Southern Cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus (Pisces, Amblyopsidae), in the eastern Mississippian Plateau of kentuck
Cooper, J. E. Journal Article 1974 New distributional and ecological data for Typhlichthys subterraneus (Pisces, Amblyopsidae) and subterranean Gyrinophilus (Amphibia, Plethodontidae)
Kalayil, P. K. and Clay, W. M. Journal Article 1976 Immumological characteristics and relationships of tissue antigens in Amblyopsid fishes
Swofford, D. L. Thesis 1976 Genetic variability, population differentiation and biochemical relationships in the family Amblyopsidae
Bechler, D. L. Journal Article 1976 Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard (Pisces, Amblyopsidae) in the Jackson Plain of Tennessee
McNulty, J. A. Journal Article 1978 Fine ultrastucture of the pineal organ of the troglodytic fish Typhlichyes subterraneous
Swofford, D. L., Branson, B. A. and Sievert, G. A. Journal Article 1980 Genetic differentiation of cavefish populations (Amblyopsidae)
Smith, V. J. Thesis 1980 Some aspects of the life history of the southern cavefish (Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard) in Missouri
Bechler, D. L. Thesis 1980 The evolution of agonistic behaviour in amblyopsid fishes
Bechler, D. L. Journal Article 1981 Agonistic behaviour in the Amblyopsidae; the cave, spring and swamp fishes
Vandike, J. E. Journal Article 1981 The effects of the November 1981 liquid fertiliser pipeline break on groundwater in Phelps County, Missouri
Paige, K. N., Tumlinson, C. R. and McDaniel, V. R. Journal Article 1981 A second record of Typhlichthys subterraneus (Pisces, Amblyopsidae) from Arkansas, USA
Bechler, D. L. Journal Article 1981 Behavioral studies on the Amblyopsidae; the cave, spring and swamp fish
Bechler, D. L. Journal Article 1983 The evolution of agonistic behaviour in Amblyopsid fishes
Mayden, R. L. and Cross, F. B. Journal Article 1983 Reevaluation of the Oklahoma records of the southern cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus (Amblyopsidae)
Vandike, J. E. Book Section 1984 Hydrogeologic aspects of the November 1981 liquid fertiliser pipeline break on groundwater in the Meramec Spring recharge area, Phelps County, Missouri
Crunkilton, R. Book Section 1985 Subterranean contamination of Meramec Spring by ammonium nitrate and urea fertiliser and its implications for rare cave biota
Jones, S. R. and Taber, C. A. Journal Article 1985 A range revision for western populations of the southern cavefish Typhlichthys subterraneus (Amblyopsidae)
Poulson, T. L. Journal Article 1985 Evolutionary reduction by neutral mutations: Plausibility arguments and data from Amblyopsid fishes and Linyphiid spiders
Palunas, M. J. Journal Article 1989 Life histories of the Amblyopsidae with an emphasis on reproductive cycles
Schubert, A. L. S., Nielsen, C. D. and Noltie, D. B. Journal Article 1993 Habitat use and gas bubble disease in southern cavefish (Typhlichthys subterraneus)
Schubert, A. L. S. and Noltie, D. B. Journal Article 1995 Laboratory studies of substrate and microhabitat selection in southern cavefish (Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard)
Bergstrom, D.E., Noltie, D.B. and Holtsford, T.P. Journal Article 1995 Ozark cavefish genetics: The phylogeny of Missouri's Ozark cavefish (Amblyopsis rosae) and southern cavefish (Typhlichthys subterraneus)
Schubert, A. L. S. and Noltie, D. B. Journal Article 1996 Effects if feeding regime on prey consumption and weight change rate in captive southern cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard (Pisces: Percopsiformes: Amblyopsidae)
Bergstrom, D.E., Noltie, D.B. and Holtsford, T.P. Book Section 1997 Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography of the family Amblyopsidae
Green, S.M. and Romero, A. Journal Article 1997 Responses to light in two blind cave fishes (Amblyopsis spelaea and Typhlichthys subterraneus) (Pisces: Amblyopsidae)
Elliott, W. R. Book Section 1998 Conservation of the North American cave and karst biota
Bergstrom, D.E., Noltie, D.B. and Holtsford, T.P. Journal Article 1998 The phylogeny, historical biogeography, and evolution of troglobitism in Amblyopsis rosae (Ozark cavefish) and Typhlichthys subterraneus (southern cavefish)
Poulson, T. Journal Article 2001 Morphological and physiological correlates of evolutionary reduction of metabolic rate among amblyopsid cave fishes
Noltie, D. B. and Wicks, C.M. Journal Article 2001 How hydrogeology has shaped the ecology of Missouri's Ozark cavefish, Amblyopsis rosae, and southern cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus: Insights on the sightless from understanding the underground
Poly, WJ and Wetzel, JE Journal Article 2003 Transbrachioral spawning: novel reproductive strategy observed for the pirate perch Aphredodereus sayanus (Aphredoderidae)
Aumiller, S.R. and Noltie, D.B. Journal Article 2003 Chemoreceptive responses of the southern cavefish Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard, 1860 (Pisces, Amblyopsidae) to conspecifics and prey
Poly, WJ and Proudlove, GS Journal Article 2004 Family Amblyopsdae Bonaparte 1846
Elliott, WR Journal Article 2007 Zoogeography and biodiversity of Missouri cave and karst
Armbruster, J, Niemiller, M. L. and Hart, PB Journal Article 2016 Morphological evolution of the cave-, spring-, and swampfishes of the Amblyopsidae
Niemiller, M. L., Zigler, KS, Hart, PB, Kuhajda, Bernard R., Armbruster, J, Ayala, BN and Engel, AS Journal Article 2016 First definitive record of a stygobiotic fish (Percopsiformes, Amblyopsidae, Typhlichthys) from the Appalachians karst region in the eastern United States
Helf, K and Olson, RA Book Section 2017 Subsurface aquatic ecology of Mammoth Cave
Culver, David C. and Hobbs, HH Book Section 2017 Biodiversity of Mammoth Cave
Hobbs, HH, OlsonR., Winkler, EG and Culver, David C. Book 2017 Mammoth Cave: A Human and Natural History
Burress, PBH, Burress, ED and Armbruster, J Journal Article 2017 Body shape variation within the Southern Cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus (Percopsiformes: Amblyopsidae)
Toomey, R, Hobbs, HH and Olson, RA Book Section 2017 An orientation to Mammoth Cave and this volume
White, W.B. and White, EL Book Section 2017 Hydrology and hydrogeology of Mammoth Cave
Poulson, Thomas L. Book Section 2017 Terrestrial cave ecology of the Mammoth Cave region