(Trewavas 1955) Hamidan, Geiger and Freyhof 2014
Typhlogarra widdowsoni Trewavas 1955
Holotype ("Type" in Trewavas, 1955): BMNH 1953.12.31:1 47.5mm SL. Paratype: BMNH 1953.12.31:2 43mm SL. This species is the type-species by original designation and monotypy of the cave-restricted genus Typhlogarra.
Type locality: Sheik Hadid Shrine sinkhole, near to the Sheik Hadid Shrine, 500m west of the Euphrates on the northern outskirts of the town of Haditha (N 34°10’57.71” E 42°22’11.80”), Iraq.
Also known from: Haqlaniya valley sinkhole (N 34° 5’28.32” E 42°21’56.30”). Locals people reported that there had been once seven additional places but the exacty location these is not known.
Above information from Al-Sheikhly and Freyhof (2013).
The only other known collection site is the Pigeon Hole, 12 km south of the type locality. A cave dwelling fish was collected from this site around 1950 (Widdowson 1954) but was lost and not identified. A specimen in the BMNH (BMNH 1960.3.1:31) is recorded from this site thus confirming the presence of the species.
The two sites in Haditha are also the type locality of Caecocypris basimi and the two species coexist.
In a study of intra-populational variation Niazi (1965) was only able to obtain specimens from the type locality.
Nothing known. The collection locality is simply a small window into the local phreas.
Post (1965) reported that the haploid chromosome number (n) for this species is 24. This appears to be the plesiomorphic state for many teleosts. Niazi (1965) examined 69 specimens (juvenile to adult, 12.0mm - 47.5mm SL) and showed that there is a degree of intra-populational variation within the species. This species belongs to a monophyletic group termed 'labeine cyprinids' by Reid (1978, 1982), where it is joined by other cave-dwelling species, (Garra longipinnis, Garra typhlops, Garra anduzzii, Garra dunsirei, Garra lorestanensis and Garra tashanensis) Howes (1991) accepts this placement, calling it the labeine lineage which is member of the subfamily Cyprininae.
Zamani-Faradonbe et al. (2021), using COI markers, found that G. widdowsoni is sister to a groupd containing G. mondica, G. amirhosseini, G. elegans and their newly described G. hormuxensis.
Freyhof, J. 2014. Typhlogarra widdowsoni. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-1. RLTS.T22601A19006932.en. Downloaded on 03 July 2017. R (IUCN 1990), R (IUCN 1994), VU D2 (IUCN 1996).
Al-Sheikhly and Freyhof (2013) conducted a survey of the Haditha sites in 2012, the first comprehensive survey for 30 years. They found that the Haqlaniya valley sinkhole was dry with no fishes to be found. Only the Sheik Hadid Shrine sinkhole was with water and even this was severely impacted by water-level reduction. Only Garra widdowsoni was seen and there have been no sitings of Caecocycpris basimi for several years. Both species certainly merit CR and C. basimi may well be EX.
As above plus: BMNH 1955.11.23:1-2, 1960.3.1:31, 1979.9.4:7-13 (13 alizarin preparation), 1979.9.4:35-36, 1981.9.21:36-47.
- Widdowson, A. G. (1954)
- Trewavas, E. (1955)
- Marshall, N.B. and Thines, G. (1958)
- Olivereau, M. (1960)
- Olivereau, M. (1960)
- Niazi, A. D. (1965)
- Peters, N. and Peters, G. (1965)
- Post, A. (1965)
- Reid, G. McG. (1978)
- Banister, K.E. and Bunni, M.K. (1980)
- Reid, G. McG. (1982)
- Whitear, M. and Mittal, A.K. (1983)
- Sandford, M. (1983)
- Howes, G. J. (1991)
- Juberthie, C. and Decu, V. (2001)
- Al-Sheikhly, O.F. and Freyhof, J. (2013)
- Behrens-Chapuis, S., Herder, F., Esmaeili, H.R., Freyhof, J., Hamidan, M.A., Ozulug, M., Sanda, R. and Geiger, M.F. (2015)
- Sayyadzadeh, G., Esmaeili, H.R. and Freyhof, J. (2015)
- Bagheri, M., Goudarzi, F., Zalaghi, A.H. and Savabieasfahani, M. (2016)
- Esmaeili, H.R., Sayyadzadeh, G., Coad, B.W. and Eagderi, S. (2016)
- Nebeshwar, K and Vishwanath, W (2017)
- Malek-Hosseini, M.J. and Zamani, A. (2017)
- Esmaeili, H.R., Mehraban, H., Abbasi, K., Keivany, Y. and Coad, B. (2017)
- Saemi-Komsari, M., Mousavi-Sabet, H., Sattari, M., Eagderi, S., Vatandoust, S. and Doadrio, I. (2020)
- Freyhof, J., Kaya, C. and Ali, A. (2021)
- Zamani-Faradonbe, M., Keivany, Y., Dorafshan, S. and Zhang, E. (2021)
- Zamani-Faradonbe M. and Keivany Y. (2021)
- Zamani-Faradonbe, M. and Keivany, Y. (2021)
- Zamani-Faradonbe, M., Zhang, E. and Keivany, Y. (2021)
|Widdowson, A. G.||Journal Article||1954||Explorers of subterranean by-ways|
|Trewavas, E.||Journal Article||1955||A blind fish from Iraq, related to Garra|
|Marshall, N.B. and Thines, G.||Journal Article||1958||Studies of the brain, sense organs and light sensitivity of a blind cave fish (Typhlogarra widdowsoni) from Iraq|
|Olivereau, M.||Journal Article||1960||Quelques aspects anatomiques et physiologiques de la glande thyroide des poissons|
|Olivereau, M.||Journal Article||1960||Hyperplasie thyroidienne et présence de follicules thyroidiens intra-rénaux, chez un exemplaire de Typhlogarra widdowsoni Trewavas, poisson aveugle et cavernicole de l'Irak|
|Niazi, A. D.||Journal Article||1965||Intrapopulational variation within Typhlogarra widdowsoni Trewavas (Cyprinidae) with some observations on their behaviour|
|Peters, N. and Peters, G.||Journal Article||1965||Die degneration der augen von Typhlogarra widdowsoni (Cyprinidae, Pisces)|
|Post, A.||Journal Article||1965||Vergleichende Untersuchungen der chromosomen-zahlen bei susswasser-Teleosteen|
|Reid, G. McG.||Thesis||1978||A sytematic study of labeine cyprinid fishes with particular reference to the comparative morphology, functional morphology and morphometrics of African Labeo species|
|Banister, K.E. and Bunni, M.K.||Journal Article||1980||A new blind cyprinid fish from Iraq|
|Reid, G. McG.||Journal Article||1982||The form, function and phylogenetic significance of the vomero-palatine organ in Cyprinid fishes|
|Whitear, M. and Mittal, A.K.||Journal Article||1983||Fine structure of the club cells in the skin of Ostariophysan fishes|
|Sandford, M.||Journal Article||1983||Ervaringen met enkele minder bekende holenvissen|
|Howes, G. J.||Book Section||1991||Systematics and biogeography: an overview|
|Juberthie, C. and Decu, V.||Book Section||2001||Irak|
|Al-Sheikhly, O.F. and Freyhof, J.||Journal Article||2013||Iraqi endemic cave fish on the very edge: Typhlogarra widdowsoni and Caecocypris basimi|
|Behrens-Chapuis, S., Herder, F., Esmaeili, H.R., Freyhof, J., Hamidan, M.A., Ozulug, M., Sanda, R. and Geiger, M.F.||Journal Article||2015||Adding nuclear rhodopsin data where mitochondrial COI indicated discrepancies - can this marker help to explain conflicts in cyprinids?|
|Sayyadzadeh, G., Esmaeili, H.R. and Freyhof, J.||Journal Article||2015||Garra mondica, a new species from the Mond River drainage with remarks on the genus Garra from the Persian Gulf basin in Iran|
|Bagheri, M., Goudarzi, F., Zalaghi, A.H. and Savabieasfahani, M.||Journal Article||2016||Habitat characteristics and population size of Iranocypris typhlops, the Iran cave barb|
|Esmaeili, H.R., Sayyadzadeh, G., Coad, B.W. and Eagderi, S.||Journal Article||2016||Review of the genus Garra Hamilton, 1822 in Iran with description of a new species: a morpho-molecular approach (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)|
|Nebeshwar, K and Vishwanath, W||Journal Article||2017||On the snout and oromandibular morphology of genus Garra, description of two new species from the Koladyne River basin in Mizoram, India, and redescription of G. manipurensis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)|
|Malek-Hosseini, M.J. and Zamani, A.||Journal Article||2017||A checklist of subterranean arthropods of Iran|
|Esmaeili, H.R., Mehraban, H., Abbasi, K., Keivany, Y. and Coad, B.||Journal Article||2017||Review and updated checklist of freshwater fishes of Iran: Taxonomy, distribution and conservation status|
|Saemi-Komsari, M., Mousavi-Sabet, H., Sattari, M., Eagderi, S., Vatandoust, S. and Doadrio, I.||Journal Article||2020||Descriptive osteology of Garra rossica (Nikolskii 1900)|
|Freyhof, J., Kaya, C. and Ali, A.||Book Section||2021||A critical checklist of the inland fishes native to the Euphrates and Tigris drainages|
|Zamani-Faradonbe, M., Keivany, Y., Dorafshan, S. and Zhang, E.||Journal Article||2021||Two new species of Garra (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from western Iran|
|Zamani-Faradonbe M. and Keivany Y.||Journal Article||2021||Biodiversity and distribution of Garra species (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) in Iran|
|Zamani-Faradonbe, M. and Keivany, Y.||Journal Article||2021||Comparative osteology of two Garra species (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae) from Hormuz and Sistan basins of Iran|
|Zamani-Faradonbe, M., Zhang, E. and Keivany, Y.||Journal Article||2021||Garra hormuzensis, a new species from the upper Kol River drainage in the Persian Gulf basin (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)|