Subterranean fishes of the world
Eidinemacheilus proudlovei Freyhof, Abdullah, Ararat, Ibrahim and Geiger 2016.


This web site is effectively the second edition of my book on the subterranean fishes of the world (Proudlove 2006). It follows very much the same structure and content and its main aim is to provide an always-up-to-date checklist of the cave and groundwater fishes of the world and detailed species accounts for all species. A fully searchable bibliography of 4000+ entries is also provided. A secondary aim is to provide checklists for the interstitial fishes and for troglomorphic fishes from non-subterranean habitats, and species accounts when time allows these to be prepared. One or two other lists and/or notes may appear if I find them of interest and relevance. Each species account has a Metadata link which takes you to a page describing the methods used, the notation and various other essential guides to using the site effectively.

There are currently 256 species of cave and groundwater fishes, 36 species of interstitial fishes and 45 species with troglomorphic features from non-subterranean habitats (total 337 species).

As of May 2018 the searchable bibliography is jointly authored by Graham Proudlove and William R. Elliott.

Important note:  It will take me while to get all of the species accounts fully populated. If you are interested in a particular species let me know and I'll prioritise it.

Comments, corrections, additions etc. to me at g.proudlove[at]

V1.0 edited Wednesday 5th August 2020

Recent additions

A nice film of research into Astyanax can be found in the Internet Resources section of the Astyanax page

Major new study of the phylogeny and evolution of the genus Sinocyclocheilus by Mao et al. (2020)

Another major review of the biology of Astyanax jordani by Jeffery (2020)

Lucifuga gibarensis newly described from Cuba by Hernandez et al. (2020)

A critically important paper by Horst Wilkens - this is a must read and understand paper for anyone interested in, or working on, subterranean fishes

The references for Astyanax jordani now greater than 700

Two interesting reviews in The Anatomical Record - Soares and Niemiller (2020) and Gross and Powers (2020)

Adding to the species accounts for South American troglomorphic fishes

Important new book on North American freshwater fishes with extensive chapters on Ictaluridae (Burr, Warren and Bennett 2020, 78 pages) and Amblyopsidae (Adams, Burr and Warren 2020, 41 pages)

Kayahschistura lokalayensis Kottelat and Grego 2020 from Myanmar

New paper on Iranian cave Garra

All links in the section on non-stygobitic fishes are now active

Adding to the species accounts for Congo River troglomorphic fishes

Trichomycterus spectrum from Colombia

Bibarba wenliuensis described, first species for the new Decade.

The bibliography of published works on subterranean fishes, started in 1979, has passed 4000 entries

A paper on the world's largest subterranean fish published

A very interesting paper on Astyanax colonising caves in Texas

A very significant grant for biomedical Astyanax research

The Sixth Astyanax International Meeting was held 17-20 March 2019. All meeting abstracts are now in the bibliography. To find all of them use Menu/Search the bibliography: Reference type = Conference paper, Year = 2019, Keyword = Astyanax International Meeting, Search type = Any word.

There are several new books and papers that are relevant:

Subterranean ecology edited by Moldovan, Kováč and Halse (2018)

The biology of caves and other subterranean habitats (Second edition) by Culver and Pipan (2019)

Encyclopedia of caves (Third edition) edited by White, Culver and Pipan (2019) includes chapters on cave fishes (Niemiler et al. 2019) and cave fishes in China (Ma et al. 2019)

And an important book and paper on potential food supply for subterranean organisms:

Microbial life of cave systems edited by Engel (2015)

Microbial communities and activities in caves

Recently added is a list of review publications, to allow entry into the literature, for the two most studied subterranean fishes Astyanax jordani and Poecilia mexicana.

The various fish lists now have all species in a genus together after excellent work by my System Administrator Gary Douthwaite.