Book

The status and distribution of freshwater diversity in central Africa

Brooks, E.G.E., Allen, D.J. and Darwall, W.R.T.

Record Number:
5282
Year:
2011
Publisher:
IUCN
Place Published:
Cambridge, UK and Gland, Switzerland
Abstract:
Central Africa supports an incredible biodiversity, and its inland waters are no exception. The Congo River has the highest species diversity of any freshwater system in Africa, and is second in species richness globally, after the Amazon. This diversity provides benefits to humans both directly, such as through livelihoods from fisheries, and indirectly through services such as the purification of water for drinking. Currently, central Africa is not heavily developed, but this is likely to change dramatically in the next few decades, in particular should long-term political stability come to the region. Development activities are, however, not always compatible with conservation objectives which are, in most cases, poorly represented within the development planning process. One of the main reasons cited for inadequate representation of biodiversity in the development processes is a lack of readily available information on inland water taxa. In response to this need for basic information on species, the IUCN Species Programme conducted a regional assessment of the status and distribution of 2,261 taxa of freshwater fishes, molluscs, odonates, crabs and selected families of aquatic plants from throughout central Africa. This study is based on the collation and analysis of existing information, and the knowledge of regional experts. All species are assessed through application of the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria to assess species risk of extinction, and distribution ranges have been mapped for the majority of species, thereby providing a tool for application to the conservation and development planning processes. The full dataset, including all species distribution maps (GIS shapefiles), is freely available in the DVD accompanying the report and through the IUCN Red List of Threatened SpeciesTM website (www.iucnredlist.org). The richest area of species diversity is clearly defined by the channel of the Congo River and its tributaries the Ubangi River and the Kasai River. Another extremely diverse area is the highlands of south-western Cameroon. Particularly high numbers of species from all taxonomic groups are found in the Upper Congo Rapids, and at Malebo Pool, also on the mainstream Congo River. Approximately one half of all species are endemic to the region, including an exceptional 74% of all fish species. Fifteen per cent of the freshwater species of central Africa are threatened with extinction according to the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. If all Data Deficient species were also found to be threatened, this could rise to as much as 36%. This level of threat is predicted to increase dramatically in response to growing levels of development, unless the ecological requirements of freshwater species are given much greater consideration in future planning. By far the biggest threat in the region is habitat loss due to agriculture and deforestation, as well as infrastructure development, and water pollution (in particular by sedimentation). The highest concentrations of threatened species are found in the Lower Congo Rapids, just downstream from the two capitals of Brazzaville and Kinshasha, and in the highly vulnerable Western Equatorial Crater Lakes. A network of river and lake basins are identified as potential Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) most important for the protection of threatened and restricted range species. Future efforts in managing inland waters must take account of the upstream and downstream connectivity in freshwater ecosystems. For example, it is recommended that conservation efforts focus on the protection of upper catchment areas, provision of environmental flows, and the inclusion of rivers and lakes as specified conservation targets within protected areas rather than as boundary markers for protected areas. Integrated Water Resource Management is recommended along with the initiation of additional river/lake basin authorities, and increased capacity to manage protected areas. The results of this assessment are to be merged with similar studies that have been conducted for all other regions of Africa, in order to provide a baseline of the status and distribution of freshwater biodiversity throughout all of continental mainland Africa. This information source, which will be made freely and widely available, will provide essential information currently lacking in many places, to help conservation and development planning proceed in a manner that takes full account of the requirements of freshwater species. Finally, it is most important that the findings and the data compiled here, are made available to the relevant decision makers and stakeholders in a format that can be easily understood and readily integrated within the decision making process. The key messages from this assessment are: ■ The inland waters of central Africa support an exceptionally high diversity of aquatic species, with high levels of endemism. Many of these species provide direct (e.g. fisheries) or indirect (e.g. water purification) benefits to people. The conservation of these species is most important to the livelihoods and economies of the regions’ people. ■ More than 15% of species across the region are currently threatened and future levels of threat are expected to rise significantly due to increasing development throughout the region, and an associated higher demand for natural resources. ■ Data on the distribution, conservation status, and ecology of 1,207 species of fish, 166 molluscs, 458 odonates, 38 crabs and 392 selected aquatic plants are now freely available through this project and the IUCN Red List website (www.iucnredlist. org/initiatives/freshwater/centralafrica). ■ The data made available through this assessment must be integrated within the decision-making processes in planning for the conservation and development of inland water resources. Lack of available information should no longer be given as a reason for inadequate consideration for development impacts to freshwater species. ■ Species information remains very limited for many species within the region, with 21% of known species classified as Data Deficient. Regions in the Democratic Republic of Congo in particular are identified as a priority for future surveys. All taxonomic groups lack vital data on species distributions and threats, but spatial information on aquatic plants in particular needs to be greatly improved throughout the region.
Times Cited:
2
Related Records:
Mathieu, F.F. (1913)
Note sur la geologie des environs de Thysville
Mathieu, F.F. (1913)
Note sur la geologie des environs de Thysville
Jaeger, F. and Waibel, L. (1921)
Beitrage zur Landschaften des nordlichen Sudwestafrika - Band 2. Landschaften des nordlichen Sudwestafrika
Boulenger, G. A. (1921)
Description d'un poisson aveugle decouvert par M. G. Geerts dans la grotte de Thysville (Bas-Congo)
Pellegrin, J. (1921)
Les poissons des eaux douces de l'Afrique de nord francaise (Maroc, Algerie, Tunisie, Sahara)
Schouteden, H. (1924)
Un poisson congolais aveugle
Pellegrin, J. (1931)
Les Cyprinides cavernicoles d'Afrique
Poll, M. (1932)
Les poissons cavernicoles aveugles africains
Jordan, K. (1933)
Letter from Karl Jordan to Walter Rothschild, November 27, 1933. DF306 Folder 3. Natural History Museum (London)
Trewavas, E. (1936)
Dr Karl Jordans expedition to South West Africa and Angola: the freshwater fishes
Gerard, P. (1936)
Sur l'existence de vestiges oculaires chez Caecobarbus geertsii
Jordan, K. (1936)
Dr Karl Jordans expedition to South West Africa and Angola. Narrative
David, L. and Poll, M. (1937)
Contribution a la faune ichthyologique de Congo Belge. Collections du Dr H. Schouteden (1924-1926) et d'autres recolteurs
Petit, G. and Besnard, W. (1937)
Sur le comportement en aquarium du Caecobarbus geertsii Blgr
Petit, G. (1938)
Au sujet de Caecobarbus geertsii Boulenger
Randour, F. (1938)
Excursions au depart de Matadi. le tourisme a Thysville
Frechkop, S. (1941)
Animaux proteges au Congo Belge
Duren, A. (1943)
La pêche en eau douce au Congo belge. 3. Les poissons d’eau douce les plus connus du Congo belge.
Wanson, M and Lebied, B. (1945-1946)
Un nouvel Anophele cavernicole de Congo belge: Anopheles (Myzomyia) vanhoofi spec. nov.
Frechkop, S. (1947)
Animaux proteges au Congo Belge
Atz, J.W. (1949)
Sightless cave fishes from the Bas Congo
Office du Tourisme du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi (1949)
Guide du voyageur au Congo Belge et au Ruanda-Urundi
Heuts, M.J. (1950)
Geographical distribution, ecology and variability of the African blind cave fish, Caecobarbus geertsi
Heuts, M. J. (1951)
Ecology, variation and adaptation of the blind African cave fish Caecobarbus geertsii Blgr
Atz, J.W. (1951)
Sightless cave fishes rom the Bas Congo
Poll, M. (1953)
Les poissons d’aquarium du Congo belge.
Heuts, M. J. (1953)
Regressive evolution in cave animals
Thines, G. (1953)
Recherches experimentales sur la photosensibilite du poisson aveugle Caecobarbus geertsi Boulenger
Breder, C.M. (1953)
Cave fish evolution
Frechkop, S. (1953)
Animaux proteges au Congo Belge
Thines, G. (1954)
Etude comparative de la photosensibilite des poissons aveugles Caecobarbus geertsii Blgr et Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs et Innes
Heuts, M. J. and Leleup, N. (1954)
La geographie et l'ecologie des grottes du Bas-Congo: les habitats de Caecobarbus geertsii Blgr
Olivereau, M. and Herlant, M. (1954)
Etude histologique de l'hypophyse de Caecobarbus geertsi
Rothschild, M. (1955)
Karl Jordan - A biography
Quaghebeur, M. (1955)
Onderzoekingen over blinde grotvissen in Verband Met de reductie in de ontwikkeling van hun ogen
Thines, G. (1955)
Les poissons aveugle. I Origine, taxonomie, reparition geographique, comportement
Poll, M. (1956)
Les poissons du Congo Belge et l’aquariophilie
Olivereau, M. and Francotte-Henry, M. (1956)
Etude histologique et biometrique de la glande thyroide de Caecobarbus geertsi
Leleup, N. (1956)
La faune cavernicole du Congo Belge et considerations sur les coleopteres reliques d'Afrique intertropicale
Leleup, N. (1956)
Description de deux grottes du Bas-Congo
Quaghebeur, M. (1957)
Onderzoek over de reductie van de ogen, van de oogkas en van het tectum opticum bij blinde grotvissen
Quaghebeur, M. (1957)
Etude histologique et biometrique de l'oeil de Caecobarbus
Leleup, N. (1957)
La faune cavernicole du Congo Belge
Luling, K.H. (1957)
Caecobarbus geertsi Boulenger - seine Entdeckung, verbreitung und Lebensweise - und nochmals Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs und Innes
Basilewsky, P. (1957)
Les grottes de Thysville
Jubb, R. A. (1958)
A cave-dwelling cat-fish Clarias cavernicola Trewavas 1936, in South-West Africa
Thines, G. (1958)
Beobachtungen uber die Phototaxis und die Thermotaxis des blinden Hohlenfisches, Caecobarbus geertsi (Cyprinidae)
Office du Tourisme du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi (1958)
Office du Tourisme du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi
Riley, N.D. (1959)
Dr Karl Jordan FRA [obituary]
Graham, R. (1959)
[Note on] Jubb, R.A. A cave-dwelling catfish Clarais cavernlcola Trewavas 1936, in South West Africa.
Stolk, A. (1959)
Experimenten met grotbewonende vissen
Riley, N.D. (1960)
Heinrich Ernst Karl Jordan 1861-1959
Nieuwenhuizen, A. van den (1961)
Caecobarbus geertsi. Bericht uit Thysstad
Nieuwenhuizen, A. van den (1961)
Caecobarbus geertsi, bericht uit Thysstad (naar gegevens van Julien de Beer)
Jubb, R. A. (1967)
Freshwater fishes of Southern Africa
Bok, A. (1968)
[The eyes, brain and sense organs of Clarias cavernicola]
Gow, C. (1968)
Aigamas Cave
Jubb, R. A. (1969)
Fishes of the dolomitic limestone caves and sinkholes of southern Africa
Thines, G. (1969)
L'Evolution regressive des poissons cavernicoles et abyssaux
Guldentope, R.E. (1969)
Cinquante cinq annees d'activites des speleologues belges dans le Bas-Congo 1915-1970
Hennig, H. (1971)
Note on the blind catfish Clarias cavernicola
Basilewsky, P. (1971)
Les grottes de Thysville
Thines, G. and Wissocq, N. (1972)
Etude comparee du comportement alimentaire de deux poissons cavenicoles (Anoptichthys jordani Hubbs et Innes et Ceacobarbus geertsii Blgr)
Thines, G. and LeGrain, J. M. (1973)
Effets de la substance d'alarme sur le comportement des poissons cavernicoles Anoptichthys jordani (Characidae) et Caecobarbus geertsii (Cyprinidae)
Roberts, T.R. and Stewart, D.J. (1976)
An ecological and systematic survey of fishes in the rapids of the lower Zaire or Congo river
Skelton, P. H. (1977)
South African Red Data Book. Fishes
Hennig, H. (1977)
Note on the blind catfish Clarias cavernicola
Miller, R. R. (1977)
Red Data Book, Volume 4, Freshwater fishes
Scheide, P. (1977)
Cave-dwelling catfish
Von Wrede, P. (1977)
Zusammenfassung der Bericht nber den blinde hoehlenfisch Clarias cavernicola Trewavas 1936
Von Wrede, P. (1977)
Zur kenntnis der Nahrungsquelle des hoehlenfisches Clarias cavernicola Trewavas 1936
Vervoort, A. (1980)
Karyotype of Caecobarbus geertsii (Teleostei, Cyprinidae)
Berti, R. and Thines, G. (1980)
Influence of chemical signals on the topographic orientation of the cave fish Caecobarbus geertsi Boulenger (Pisces, Cyprinidae)
CITES (1981)
Proposal to include Caecobarbus geertsi and Appendix I and all other species of blind cave fishes (except the species commercially known as Anoptichthys jordani) in Appendix II
Teugels, G. G. (1982)
Preliminary data of a systematic outline of the African species of the the genus Clarias (Pisces, Clariidae)
Teugels, G.G. (1982)
A systematic outline of the African species of the the genus Clarias (Pisces, Clariidae) with an annotated bibliography
Jankowska, M. and Thines, G. (1982)
Etude comparative de la densite de groupes de poissons cavernicoles et epigee (Characidae, Cyprinidae, Clariidae)
Leveque, C. and Daget, J. (1984)
Caecobarbus geertsii Boulenger, 1921
Penrith, M (1985)
Blind barbel
Quinif, Y. (1985)
Kwilu 84 - Expedition speleologique dans la bas-Congo
Quinif, Y. (1985)
Une morphologie karstique typique en zone intertropicale: les karsts de Bas-Congo
Sefton, M., Martini, J. and Ellis, R. (1986)
Cave descriptions
Banister, K.E. (1986)
Fish of the Zaire System
Teugels, G.G. (1986)
A systematic revision of the African species of the genus Clarias (Pisces, Clariidae)
Sefton, M. (1986)
Aigamas
Quinif, Y. (1986)
Genese des karsts a tours en pays intertropicale: l'example du Bas-Congo
Skelton, P. (1987)
An expedition to the caves and sink holes of South West Africa, Namibia
Skelton, P. H. (1987)
Cave Catfish / Spelonk-barber
Maxwell, C. (1988)
Underwater in Dragons Breath Cave
Penney, A.J. (1988)
The aquatic fauna of Dragon's Breath lake
Penney, A.J. (1988)
Notes on the collection of blind cave catfish from Aigamas Cave during Swex '87
Penney, A.J. and Maxwell, C.D. (1988)
Johan's Cave: a new cave on Aigamas Farm
Quinif, Y. and Dupuis, C. (1989)
Morphologie et hydrologie d'um karst couvert: le reseau de Ziaka (Bas-Congo)
Skelton, P. H. (1989)
Gems of a different kind
Skelton, P. H. (1990)
The conservation and status of threatened fishes in southern Africa
Skelton, P. H. (1990)
The status of fishes from the sinkholes and caves in Namibia
Skelton, P. H. (1990)
The status of fishes from sinkholes and caves in Namibia
Irish, J (1991)
Cave investigations in Namibia. 1. biospeleology, ecology, and conservation of Dragon's Breath Cave
Irish, J (1991)
Conservation aspects of karst waters in Namibia
Skelton, P. H. and Teugels, G. G. (1991)
A review of the Clariid catfishes (Siluroidei, Clariidae) occuring in southern Africa
de Pinna, M.C.C. (1993)
Higher-levelphylogeny of Siluriformes,with a new classication of the order (Teleostei, Ostariophysi).
Kensley, B. (1995)
A new genus of aquatic cave-dwelling isopod from Namibia (Crustacea: Isopoda: Asellota)
Bruton, M. (1995)
Threatened fishes of the world: Clarias cavernicola Trewavas,1936 (Clariidae)
Marais, E. and Irish, J. (1997)
Cave investigations in Namibia, IV. Aikab hemicenote, and other karst phenomina in the Etosha national Park
Churchill, S., Draper, R. and Marais, E. (1997)
Cave utilisation by Namibian bats: population, microclimate and roost selection
Barnard, P. (1998)
Biological diversity in Namibia
Curtis, B., Roberts, K.S., Griffin, M., Bethune, S., Hay, C.J. and Kolberg, H. (1998)
Species richness and conservation of Namibian freshwater macro-invertebrates, fish and amphibians
Davis, B. and Day, J. (1998)
Vanishing waters
de Pinna, M.C.C. (1998)
Phylogenetic relationships of Neotropical Siluriformes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi): Historical overview and synthesis of hypotheses
Adriaens, D. (1998)
On how a larva becomes an adult catfish a functional morphological approach to the cranial ontogeny of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes, Clariidae)
Cabuy, E., Adriaens, D., Verraes, W. and Teugels, G.G. (1999)
Comparative study on the cranial morphology of Gymnallabes typus (Siluriformes: Clariidae) and their less anguilliform relatives, Clariallabes melas and Clarias gariepinus
Thys van den Audenaerde, D. F. E. (1999)
A peacock, a blind barbel, a railway wagon and a disappointed ichthyologist
Romero, A. and Benz, K. (2000)
The unsung heroes of speleology
Devaere, S., Adriaens, D., Verraes, W. and Teugels, G.G. (2001)
Cranial morphology of the anguilliform clariid Channallabes (Gunther 1873) (Teleostei: Siluriformes) are adaptations related to powerful biting?
Decu, V., Juberthie, C. and Tercafs, R. (2001)
Republique Democratique Du Congo (ex-Zaire)
Irish, J., Marais, E., Juberthie, C. and Decu, V. (2001)
Namibia
Proudlove, G.S. and Romero, A. (2001)
Threatened fishes of the world: Caecobarus geertsii Boulenger, 1921 (Cyprinidae)
Teugels, G.G. and Adriaens, D. (2003)
Taxonomy and phylogeny of Clariidae - an overview
Diogo, R., Chardon, M. and Vandewalle, P. (2003)
On the osteology and myology of the cephalic region and pectoral girdle of Heteropneustes fossilis (Siluriformes: Heteropneustidae), with comments on the phylogenetic relationships between Heteropneustes and clariid fishes
De Schepper, N; Adriaens, D; Teugels, GG; et al. (2004)
Intraspecific variation in the postcranial skeleton morphology in African clariids: a case study of extreme phenotypic plasticity
Johnson, K. (2004)
Karl Jordan: A life in systematics
Thieme, M.L., Abell, R., Stiassny, M.L.J.,Skelton, P., Lehner, B., Teugels, G., Dinerstein, E., Kamdem-Toham, A., Burgess, B., and Olson, D. (2005)
Freshwater ecoregions of Africa and Madagascar. A conservation assessment
Thieme, M.L., Abell, R., Stiassny, M.L.J.,Skelton, P., Lehner, B., Teugels, G., Dinerstein, E., Kamdem-Toham, A., Burgess, B., and Olson, D. (2005)
Freshwater ecoregions of Africa and Madagascar. A conservation assessment
Scott, L. (2005)
Ecoregion 79. Karstveld sinkholes
Brown, A. and Abell, R. (2005)
Ecoregion 80. Thysville Caves
Agnese, J.F. and Teugels, G. (2005)
Insight into the phylogeny of African Clariidae (Teleostei, Siluriformes); Implications for their body shape evolution, biogeography, and taxonomy
Diogo, R. (2005)
Morphological evolution, aptations, homoplasies, constraints and evolutionary trends. Catfishes as a case study on general phylogeny and macroevolution
Jansen, G., Devaere, S., Weekers, P.H.H. and Adriaens, D. (2006)
Phylogenetic relationships and divergence time estimate of African anguilliform catfish (Siluriformes: Clariidae) inferred from ribosomal gene and spacer sequences
Kimbembi ma Ibaka A. and Boki F. (2006)
Données préliminaires sur le coefficient de condition du Caecobarbus geertsii des grottes de la contrée de Mbanza-Ngungu, cas de la grotte de Nzonzi
Kimbembi ma Ibaka, A. (2007)
Approche systémique de la conservation des grottes de Mbanza-Ngungu, contribution a l’étude de la biodiversité cavernicole et proposition de création d’une aire protégée.
Thieme, M., Shapiro, A., Colom, A., Schliewen, U., Sindorf, N. and Kamdem Toham, A. (2008)
Inventaire rapide des zones humides représentatives en République Démocratique du Congo
Hanssens, M., Vreven, J., E. and Snoeks, J. (2008)
The ichthyofauna of Lower Congo and Pool Malebo
Moelants, T. (2009)
Caecobarbus geertsii
Darwall, W.R.T., Smith, K.G., Tweddle, D. and Skelton, P. (2009)
The status and distribution of freshwater biodiversity in southern Africa
Kimbembi, ma Ibaka, A. (2009)
Decouvert de nouveaux sites a Caecobarbus geertsii Blgr. 1921 a Mbanza-Ngungu
Vreven, E., Kimbembi ma Ibaka, A. and Wamuini, S. (2011)
The Congo blind barb: Mbanza-Ngungu's albino cave fish
Darwall, W.R.T., Smith, K.G., Allen, D.J., Holland, R.A, Harrison, I.J., and Brooks, E.G.E. (2011)
The diversity of life in African freshwaters: Under water, under threat. An analysis of the status and distribution of freshwater species throughout mainland Africa
Brooks, E.G.E., Allen, D.J. and Darwall, W.R.T. (2011)
The status and distribution of freshwater diversity in central Africa
Darwall, W.R.T., Smith, K.G., Allen, D.J., Holland, R.A, Harrison, I.J., and Brooks, E.G.E. (2011)
The diversity of life in African freshwaters: Under water, under threat. An analysis of the status and distribution of freshwater species throughout mainland Africa
Brooks, E.G.E., Allen, D.J. and Darwall, W.R.T. (2011)
The status and distribution of freshwater diversity in central Africa
Johnson, K. (2012)
Ordering life. Karl Jordan and the naturalist tradition
Kimbembi, ma Ibaka, A. (2012)
Degradation des grottes aux poissons aveugles (Caecobarbus geertsii Boulenger 1921, Teleostei Cyprinidae) dans la region de Mbanza Ngungu en R.D. Congo et proposition d'une aire protegee
Fileccia, A. (2012)
Namgrows 2011, spedizione speleologica euro Africain in Namibia
Fileccia, A (2012)
NAMGROWS. Namibian groundwater systems. Euro African joint cave expedition (A research project on karst aquifers in nothern Namibia)
Shaw, J.G. (2013)
Caves of the Democratic Republic of Congo Exploration, Science and History
Constant, P. (2014)
Namibian sinkholes. Exploring the magic triangle
Kimbembi, A., Wamuini Lunkayilakio, S., Bansimba Mukiese, J-R., Mbungu, S.M. and Musubao Pzinza, P. (2014)
Etat des lieux de la biodiversite – 2014 Province de Bas-Congo
Laumanns, M. (2017)
Atlas of the great caves and the karst of Africa. Part 1. Introduction and Algeria to Madagascar
Laumanns, M. (2017)
Atlas of the Great caves and the karst of Africa. Volume 2. Malawi to Zimbabwe and general references
Decru, E., Van Ginneken, M., Vreven, E., Kimbembi, A., Verheyen, E. and Snoeks, J. (2018)
Hidden diversity in the small African barbs
Decru, E., Kimbembi, A., Wamuini, S.L., Kosi, D, Snoeks, J. and Vreven, E. (2018)
Eye-opening discoveries on the threatened blind Congo minnow Caecobarbus geertsii
Kimbembi ma Ibaka, A. (2018)
Grottes aux poissons aveugles: Caecobarbus geertsii de Mbanza-Ngungu en R.D.Congo
Jacobs, F.J., Hay, C.H, Jacobs, P.G. and Næsje, T.F. (2019)
Preliminary technical report: A baseline study of the critically endangered cave-dwelling catfish Clarias cavernicola. Report no. MFMR-PRFR1-2019-04-30
Jacobs, F.J., Hay, C.H., Jacobs, P.G. and Næsje, T.F. (2019)
A baseline study of the critically endangered cave-dwelling catfish (Clarias cavernicola)
UNEP-WCMC (2019)
Review of species selected on the basis of the analysis of 2018 CITES export quotas. Part II.
Jacobs, F.J. and Hay, C.J. (2019)
Who needs eyes?
Mullens, N., Sonet, G., Decru, E., Virgilio, M., Snoeks, J. Vreven, E. (2020)
Mitogenomic characterization and systematic placement of the Congo blind barb Caecobarbus geertsii (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae)
Jacobs, F.J., Jacobs, P.G., Hay, C.J. and Naesje, T.F. (2021)
Status update of the endemic and critically endangered cave catfish Clarias cavernicola Trewavas 1936, from the Aigamas Cave system, Namibia