Journal Article

Biodiversity from caves and other subterranean habitats of Georgia, USA

Zigler, K.S., Niemiller, M.L., Stephen, C.D.R., Ayala, B.N. Milne, M.A., Gladstone, N.S., Engel, A.S., Jensen, J.B., Camp, C.D., Ozier, J.C. and Cressler, A.

Record Number:
4719
Year:
2020
Journal:
Journal of Cave and Karst Studies
Pages:
125-167
Volume:
82
Abstract:
We provide an annotated checklist of species recorded from caves and other subterranean habitats in the state of Georgia, USA. We report 281 species (228 invertebrates and 53 vertebrates), including 51 troglobionts (cave-obligate species), from more than 150 sites (caves, springs, and wells). Endemism is high; of the troglobionts, 17 (33 % of those known from the state) are endemic to Georgia and seven (14 %) are known from a single cave. We identified three biogeographic clusters of troglobionts. Two clusters are located in the northwestern part of the state, west of Lookout Mountain in Lookout Valley and east of Lookout Mountain in the Valley and Ridge. In addition, there is a group of troglobionts found only in the southwestern corner of the state and associated with the Upper Floridan Aquifer. At least two dozen potentially undescribed species have been collected from caves; clarifying the taxonomic status of these organisms would improve our understanding of cave biodiversity in the state. Conservation concerns related to species found in Georgia caves are significant, with fourteen species (including 13 vertebrates) considered “High Priority Species” under the Georgia State Wildlife Action Plan, many of these species have additional state or federal protections. In addition, 17 invertebrate troglobionts (33 % of those known in the state) are considered “Critically Imperiled” by Nature- Serve. Several biologically important caves are not protected, these are an important conservation concern. However, remarkably, around one third of all caves in the state are on protected lands, including seven of the eight caves known to host ten or more troglobionts.
Times Cited:
1
Related Records:
Girard, C. (1859)
Ichthyological notices
Cox, U. O. (1905)
A revision of the cave fishes of North America
Eigenmann, C. H. (1909)
Cave vertebrates of America, a study in degenerative evolution
Verrier, M. L. (1929)
Observations sur le comportement d'un poisson cavernicole: Typhlichthys osbornii Eigenmann
Woods, L. P. and Inger, R. F. (1957)
The cave, spring and swamp fishes of the family Amblyopsidae of central and eastern United States
Poulson, T. L. (1961)
Cave adaptation in Amblyopsid fishes
Rosen, D. E. (1962)
Comments on the relationships of the North American cave fishes of the family Amblyopsidae
Clay, W.M. (1962)
A field manual of Kentucky fishes
Poulson, T. L. (1963)
Cave adaptation in Amblyopsid fishes
Cooper, J.E. (1966)
Preliminary observations on the biology of Shelta Cave, Alabama
Barr, T. C. (1967)
Ecological studies in the Mammoth Cave System of Kentucky. I.The biota
Poulson, T. L. (1969)
Population size, density and regulation in cave fishes
Cooper, J. E. (1969)
Biological studies in Shelta Cave, Alabama
Barr, T.C. and Kuehne, R.A. (1971)
Ecological studies in the Mammoth Cave System of Kentucky. II. The Ecosystem
Cooper, J. E. and Iles, A. (1971)
The Southern Cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus, at the southeastern periphery of its range
Cooper, J. E. (1971)
Interesting new locality records for the southern cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard (Pisces, Amblyopsidae)
Cooper, J. E. and Cooper, M. R. (1971)
Studies on the aquatic ecology of Shelta Cave, Huntsville, Alabama
Cooper, J. E. and Beiter, D. P. (1972)
The Southern Cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus (Pisces, Amblyopsidae), in the eastern Mississippian Plateau of kentuck
Cooper, J.E. (1974)
New distributional and ecological data for Typhlichthys subterraneus (Pisces, Amblyopsidae) and subterranean Gyrinophilus (Amphibia, Plethodontidae)
Cooper, J.E. (1975)
Ecological and behavioural studies in Shelta Cave, Alabama, with emphasis on decapod crustaceans
Clay, W.M. (1975)
The fishes of Kentucky
Kalayil, P.K. and Clay, W.M. (1976)
Immumological characteristics and relationships of tissue antigens in Amblyopsid fishes
Swofford, D. L. (1976)
Genetic variability, population differentiation and biochemical relationships in the family Amblyopsidae
Bechler, D. L. (1976)
Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard (Pisces, Amblyopsidae) in the Jackson Plain of Tennessee
McNulty, J. A. (1978)
Fine ultrastucture of the pineal organ of the troglodytic fish Typhlichyes subterraneous
Cooper, J.E. (1980)
Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard Southern cavefish
Swofford, D. L., Branson, B. A. and Sievert, G. A. (1980)
Genetic differentiation of cavefish populations (Amblyopsidae)
Smith, V. J. (1980)
Some aspects of the life history of the southern cavefish (Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard) in Missouri
Bechler, D. L. (1980)
The evolution of agonistic behaviour in amblyopsid fishes
Paige, K. N., Tumlinson, C. R. and McDaniel, V. R. (1981)
A second record of Typhlichthys subterraneus (Pisces, Amblyopsidae) from Arkansas, USA
Bechler, D. L. (1981)
Behavioral studies on the Amblyopsidae; the cave, spring and swamp fish
Bechler, D. L. (1981)
Agonistic behaviour in the Amblyopsidae; the cave, spring and swamp fishes
Vandike, J. E. (1981)
The effects of the November 1981 liquid fertiliser pipeline break on groundwater in Phelps County, Missouri
Lewis, J.J., Lewis, T.M. and Eckstein, J. (1982)
A biological reconnaissance of a poluted cave stream: the Hidden River grounwater basin
Bechler, D. L. (1983)
The evolution of agonistic behaviour in Amblyopsid fishes
Mayden, R. L. and Cross, F. B. (1983)
Reevaluation of the Oklahoma records of the southern cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus (Amblyopsidae)
Vandike, J. E. (1984)
Hydrogeologic aspects of the November 1981 liquid fertiliser pipeline break on groundwater in the Meramec Spring recharge area, Phelps County, Missouri
Poulson, T. L. (1985)
Evolutionary reduction by neutral mutations: Plausibility arguments and data from Amblyopsid fishes and Linyphiid spiders
Crunkilton, R. (1985)
Subterranean contamination of Meramec Spring by ammonium nitrate and urea fertiliser and its implications for rare cave biota
Jones, S.R. and Taber, C.A. (1985)
A range revision for western populations of the southern cavefish Typhlichthys subterraneus (Amblyopsidae)
Burr, B.M. and Warren, M.L. (1986)
A distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes
Palunas, M. J. (1989)
Life histories of the Amblyopsidae with an emphasis on reproductive cycles
Schubert, A.L.S., Nielsen, C.D. and Noltie, D.B. (1993)
Habitat use and gas bubble disease in southern cavefish (Typhlichthys subterraneus)
Schubert, A. L. S. and Noltie, D. B. (1995)
Laboratory studies of substrate and microhabitat selection in southern cavefish (Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard)
Bergstrom, D.E., Noltie, D.B. and Holtsford, T.P. (1995)
Ozark cavefish genetics: The phylogeny of Missouri's Ozark cavefish (Amblyopsis rosae) and southern cavefish (Typhlichthys subterraneus)
Lewis, J.J. (1995)
The devastation and recovery of caves and karst affected by industrialisation
Schubert, A. L. S. and Noltie, D. B. (1996)
Effects if feeding regime on prey consumption and weight change rate in captive southern cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard (Pisces: Percopsiformes: Amblyopsidae)
Bergstrom, D.E., Noltie, D.B. and Holtsford, T.P. (1997)
Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography of the family Amblyopsidae
Green, S.M. and Romero, A. (1997)
Responses to light in two blind cave fishes (Amblyopsis spelaea and Typhlichthys subterraneus) (Pisces: Amblyopsidae)
Jones, T.G. and Pearson, W.D. (1997)
The recovery of the aquatic biological community in Hidden River Cave, Horse Cave, Kentucky
Bergstrom, D.E., Noltie, D.B. and Holtsford, T.P. (1998)
The phylogeny, historical biogeography, and evolution of troglobitism in Amblyopsis rosae (Ozark cavefish) and Typhlichthys subterraneus (southern cavefish)
Elliott, W.R. (1998)
Conservation of the North American cave and karst biota
Noltie, D. B. and Wicks, C.M. (2001)
How hydrogeology has shaped the ecology of Missouri's Ozark cavefish, Amblyopsis rosae, and southern cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus: Insights on the sightless from understanding the underground
Poulson, T. (2001)
Morphological and physiological correlates of evolutionary reduction of metabolic rate among amblyopsid cave fishes
Aley, T., Ashley, D.C., Elliott, W.R., McGlimsey, M., Weaver, D. and Beard, J (2002)
Conserving Missouri's caves and karst
Lewis, J.J. (2002)
Conservation assessment for Southern cavefish (Typhlichthys subterraneus)
Elliott, W.R. (2003)
A guide to Mssouri's cave life
Poly, WJ and Wetzel, JE (2003)
Transbrachioral spawning: novel reproductive strategy observed for the pirate perch Aphredodereus sayanus (Aphredoderidae)
Aumiller, S.R. and Noltie, D.B. (2003)
Chemoreceptive responses of the southern cavefish Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard, 1860 (Pisces, Amblyopsidae) to conspecifics and prey
Poly, W.J. and Proudlove, G.S. (2004)
Family Amblyopsdae Bonaparte 1846
Compson, Z.G. (2004)
An isotopic examination of cave, spring and epigean trophic structures in Mammoth Cave National Park
Romero, A. and Woodward, J.S. (2005)
On white fish and black men: Did Stephen Bishop really discover the blind cave fish of Mammoth Cave
Elliott, WR (2007)
Zoogeography and biodiversity of Missouri cave and karst
Aley, T, Aley, C, Moss, P and Hertzler, T (2008)
Hydrogeological characteristics of delineated recharge areas for 40 biologically significant cave and spring systems in Missouri, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Illinois
Romero, A., Connor, M.S. and Vaughan, G.L. (2010)
Population Status of the Southern Cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus in Arkansas
Cooper, J.E. and Cooper, M.R. (2011)
Observations on the biology of the endangered stygobitic shrimp Palaemonias alabamae, with notes on P. ganteri (Decapoda: Atyidae)
Niemiller, M.L. and Zigler, K.S. (2013)
Patterns of cave biodiversity and endemism in the Appalachians and interior plateau of Tennessee
Lewis, J.J., Lewis, S. and Nims, P. (2015)
Observations on the ecosystem of Hidden River Cave bioinventory: Community cencus and water quality analysis
Hart, PB (2016)
Diversity and conservation of the Southern Cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus
Armbruster, J., Niemiller, M.L. and Hart, P.B. (2016)
Morphological evolution of the cave-, spring-, and swampfishes of the Amblyopsidae
Niemiller, M.L., Zigler, K.S., Hart, P.B., Kuhajda, B.R., Armbruster, J., Ayala, B.N. and Engel, A.S. (2016)
First definitive record of a stygobiotic fish (Percopsiformes, Amblyopsidae, Typhlichthys) from the Appalachians karst region in the eastern United States
Niemiller, M.L., Zigler, K.S., Stephen, C.D.R., Carter, E.T., Paterson, A.T., Taylor, S.J. and Engel, A.S. (2016)
Vertebrate fauna in caves of eastern tennessee within the Appalachians karst region, USA
Toomey, R.., Hobbs, H.H. and Olson, R.A. (2017)
An orientation to Mammoth Cave and this volume
White, W.B. and White, E.L. (2017)
Hydrology and hydrogeology of Mammoth Cave
Poulson, T.L. (2017)
Terrestrial cave ecology of the Mammoth Cave region
Helf, K. and Olson, R.A. (2017)
Subsurface aquatic ecology of Mammoth Cave
Culver, D.C. and Hobbs, H.H. (2017)
Biodiversity of Mammoth Cave
Hobbs, H.H., Olson, R., Winkler, E.G. and Culver, D.C. (2017)
Mammoth Cave: A Human and Natural History
Burress, P.B.H., Burress, E.D. and Armbruster, J. (2017)
Body shape variation within the Southern Cavefish, Typhlichthys subterraneus (Percopsiformes: Amblyopsidae)
O’Dell, G.A. and George, A.I. (2018)
The celebrated black explorer Stephen Bishop and Mammoth Cave: Observations by an English journalist in 1853
Trimboli, S.R. and Toomey, R.S. (2019)
Temperature and reverse-flow patterns of the River Styx, Mammoth Cave, Kentucky
Adams, G.L., Burr, B.M. and Warren, M.L. (2020)
Amblyopsidae: Cavefishes
Zigler, K.S., Niemiller, M.L., Stephen, C.D.R., Ayala, B.N. Milne, M.A., Gladstone, N.S., Engel, A.S., Jensen, J.B., Camp, C.D., Ozier, J.C. and Cressler, A. (2020)
Biodiversity from caves and other subterranean habitats of Georgia, USA